Changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth and mucosal immune parameters after dietary administration of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract

Abstract

The effect of dietary grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) on growth performance and mucosal immune parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry was studied. Fish (1.3 g mean weight) were randomly distributed in nine tanks (15 fish per tank) and fed diets containing GSE at 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg kg−1for 60 days. The results showed that growth parameters were enhanced in both treatment groups compared to the control group. Histological examination of fish skin showed higher epidermis thickness, goblet cell density, and volume density in the GSE groups compared to the values of the control group. Furthermore, the villus height, goblet cell density, and intraepithelial lymphocytes were increased in the fish intestine in those fish fed GSE, with respect to control fish. Feeding fish with low dose of GSE (100 mg kg−1) up-regulated the expression of some immune-relevant genes, including complement component 3 (C3), lysozyme (Lys), omDB-3, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in different mucosal tissues. However, feeding fish the high dose of GSE (200 mg kg−1) mostly enhanced expression of these genes in the skin. Besides, skin mucus of fish fed GSE showed bactericidal activity against Yersinia ruckeri. It was concluded that GSE, especially at 100 mg kg−1, modulates the growth performance and mucosal immunity of rainbow trout.

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Funding

The authors are thankful to the Research affairs of the University of Tabriz for funding this project. This work was partly supported by the Fundación Seneca de la Región de Murcia (Grupo de Excelencia grant no. 19883/GERM/15).

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Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiment: SM, NS, MAE. Carried out the feeding trial and sampling: AKO, PS. Performed the molecular experiment: MF, SM, NS. Carried out the histological studies: GH. Analyzed all the data: KM. Wrote and revised the manuscript: NS, MAE, SM.

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Correspondence to Shalaleh Mousavi.

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All experiments in this study were carried out according to the guidelines for the care of experimental animals that are approved by the ethical committee of the University of Tabriz.

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Highlights

• Dietary grape seed extract (GSE) could improve the growth performance in rainbow trout.

• GSE could alter histological structure in rainbow trout mucosal tissues.

• Up-regulated the expression of some immune-relevant genes in different mucosal tissues were shown.

• Skin mucus in treatment groups showed antibacterial activity against Yersinia ruckeri.

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Mousavi, S., Sheikhzadeh, N., Hamidian, G. et al. Changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth and mucosal immune parameters after dietary administration of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract. Fish Physiol Biochem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-021-00930-z

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Keywords

  • Rainbow trout
  • Grape seed
  • Growth
  • Histology
  • Mucosal immunity