Integrated biomarker parameters response to the toxic effects of high stocking density, CuSO4, and trichlorfon on fish and protective role mediated by Angelica sinensis extract


The present study explored the protective role of dietary the extract of Angelica sinensis (EAs) on high density, CuSO4, or trichlorfon-treated Crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus). Firstly, the study showed that the optimum density for growth and growth inhibition was 0.49 and 0.98 fish L−1 water, respectively. Dietary EAs relieved the high density–induced growth inhibition in Crucian carp. The appropriate concentration of EAs for recovery of growth was estimated to be 4.30 g kg−1 diet in high-density fish. Moreover, high density decreased both digestive and absorptive enzyme activities and increased lipid oxidation in digestive organs, suggesting the ability of high density to induce oxidative damage. However, dietary EAs inhibited the oxidative damage through elevating ROS scavenging ability and enzymatic antioxidant activity in digestive organs. Secondly, our data demonstrated that the appropriate concentration of CuSO4 to induce the decrease in feed intake (FI) was 0.8 mg Cu L−1 water. Dietary EAs returned to FI of Crucian carp treated with CuSO4. The appropriate concentration of EAs for recovery of FI was estimated to be 4.25 g kg−1 diet. Moreover, dietary EAs suppressed the CuSO4-induced decrease in digestion and absorption capacity and increase in protein metabolism in digestive organs of Crucian carp. Finally, the present results suggested that dietary EAs inhibited the trichlorfon-induced rollover (loss of equilibrium) in Crucian carp. The appropriate concentration of EAs for inhibition of rollover was estimated to be 4.18 g kg−1 diet. Moreover, trichlorfon stimulated not only the decrease in energy metabolism but also lipid and protein oxidation, suggesting that trichlorfon caused loss of function and oxidative damage in muscles of fish. However, dietary EAs improved muscular function and inhibited oxidative damage via quenching ROS and elevating non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activity in muscles of trichlorfon-induced fish. So, EAs could be used as an inhibitor of high density, CuSO4, and trichlorfon stress in fish.

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This research was financially supported by Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2018JY0214), the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (16ZB0302), the Doctoral Research Fund (14B07), and the Patent Project (Z2019027) of Neijiang Normal University. The authors wish to thank the personnel of these teams for their kind assistance.

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Li, H., Ma, Y., Liu, Y. et al. Integrated biomarker parameters response to the toxic effects of high stocking density, CuSO4, and trichlorfon on fish and protective role mediated by Angelica sinensis extract. Fish Physiol Biochem (2020).

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  • Angelica sinensis
  • Stocking density
  • CuSO4
  • Trichlorfon
  • Crucian carp