Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 71–82 | Cite as

Antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against pendimethalin-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

  • Heba S. HamedEmail author
  • Yasser S. El-Sayed


To assess the ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical changes, liver DNA damage and oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.52 mg/l) of pendimethalin (PM). Tilapia fish were allocated into four equal groups in tri-replicates as follows: first group was the control group, second group was treated with MO (20 ml/30 l water), third group was exposed to 0.52 mg PM/l and fourth group was exposed to 0.52 mg PM/l and treated with MO leaf extract (20 ml/30 l water) for 28 days. At the end of this period, blood and liver tissue samples were collected and haematological and biochemical changes, hepatic DNA fragmentation and oxidative stress biomarkers were analysed. Pendimethalin caused significant reduction in haematological profile [White blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Ht) level]; meanwhile, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, uric acid, glucose, cortisol, cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased. On the other hand, serum total protein, albumin, globulin and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were decreased. Significant reduction in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and marked increments of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation were observed in PM-exposed fish compared to the control group. The addition of Moringa oleifera leaf extract into the water could overcome the negative impacts of pendimethalin and normalise the examined parameters nearly to the control values. Moringa oleifera was used for the first time to protect tilapia fish against PM-induced toxicity. The present study revealed that Moringa oleifera has potent antioxidant and antigenotoxic actions against pendimethalin toxicity.


Moringa oleifera Pendimethalin Oreochromis niloticus Haematology Biochemistry DNA fragmentation Oxidative stress biomarkers 



The authors wish to thank Dr. Mamoun Abd El-Kareem of the Atomic and Molecular Physics Unit, Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Research Centre, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Cairo, Egypt, for his kind helpful for the GC-MS analysis and interpretations.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

Experimental design and fish handling were approved by the Research Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and EducationAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineDamanhour UniversityDamanhourEgypt

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