Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 1061–1073 | Cite as

Response of gastrointestinal melatonin, antioxidants, and digestive enzymes to altered feeding conditions in carp (Catla catla)

  • Palash Kumar Pal
  • Saumen Kumar Maitra


The purpose of present study was to ascertain whether the response of gastrointestinal (gut) melatonin to altered feeding conditions was related to the levels of different antioxidants and digestive enzymes in the same gut tissues of a sub-tropical carp (Catla catla). Accordingly, the fish were subjected to food deprivation for 4 or 8 days and separately to re-feeding for 4 or 8 or 12 days after deprivation of food for 8 days, and their gut tissue homogenates were used to measure the levels of melatonin, both enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and non-enzymatic [reduced glutathione (GSH)] antioxidants, as well as different digestive enzymes (α-amylase, cellulase, protease, and lipase). Notably, the gut levels of melatonin, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST underwent gradual increase with the progress of food deprivation, but a sudden fall after restoration of food supply for 4 days and a rise thereafter. Conversely, the activity of all the digestive enzymes significantly decreased after deprivation of food, but started increasing when food supply was reinforced. Gut melatonin concentrations by showing a positive correlation with the titers of different antioxidants (in both food-deprived and re-fed fish groups) and a negative (in food-deprived fish) or a positive (in re-fed fish) correlation with the activity of each digestive enzyme underlined possible physiological interplay between them. Collectively, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that gut melatonin response to altered feeding conditions in carp might be associated with the oxidative status as well as the digestive functions of the gastrointestinal tissues itself.


Antioxidants Carp Digestive enzymes Food deprivation Gut melatonin Re-feeding 


Funding information

Financial assistance from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) [37(1390)/09/EMR-II] Govt. of India, New Delhi, to SKM and a Research Fellowship to PKP by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2011/IF110070), are thankfully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyVisva-Bharati UniversitySantiniketanIndia

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