Effects of dietary inclusions of red beet and betaine on the acute stress response and muscle lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout
This study evaluates the effects of red beet (RB) and betaine on rainbow trout submitted to an acute stress challenge. A control diet was compared with four experimental diets in which red beet (14 and 28%) and betaine (0.9 and 1.63%) were incorporated in different concentrations according to a factorial design. Cortisol in plasma and fin, glucose and lactate plasma levels, and malondialdehide (MDA) in muscle were all measured before the stress challenge and 30 min and 6 and 12 h after the stress challenge as parameters to determine the diet effects. RB and betaine had no effect on cortisol, glucose, and MDA basal levels. However, lactate basal levels were significantly lower on fish fed with RB and betaine. Thirty minutes after the stress challenge, there was a significant increase in plasma and fin cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations, although fish fed with diets containing RB and betaine showed significantly higher plasma cortisol values. MDA values of fish fed with 14% RB and 0.9% betaine were significantly higher than MDA values from fish fed with 28% RB and 1.63% betaine. After 6 and 12 h, plasma and fin cortisol and lactate levels recovered in a similar trend. Glucose plasma levels recovered in almost all groups 12 h after the stress. Also, MDA values recovered basal levels after 6 and 12 h. RB and betaine did not enhance the tolerance to the stress challenge compared to the control group, although the presence of these ingredients had no negative effect on any of the stress indicators.
KeywordsRed beet Betaine Rainbow trout Acute stress challenge
This work has been co-funded with FEDER and INIA funds. Julia Pinedo has been granted with the FPI-INIA grant number 21 (call 2012, BOE-2012-13337).
Compliance with ethical standards
The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) study complied with the European Union Council 282 Directive 2010/63/UE, which lays down minimum standards for the protection of animals, and Spanish national legislation (Spanish Royal Decree 53/2013) protecting animals used in experimentation and for other scientific purposes and approved by Animal Ethics Committee of Agro-Technological Institute of Castilla y León (Spain).
- Bertotto D, Poltronieri C, Negrato E, Majolini D, Radaelli G, Simontacchi C (2010) Alternative matrices for cortisol measurement in fish. Aquac Res 41:1261–1267Google Scholar
- Kaplan LA, Pesce AJ (1984) Clinical chemistry: theory, analysis and correlation. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 1032–1036Google Scholar
- Lushchak VI, Bagnyukova TV (2006) Temperature increase results in oxidative stress in goldfish tissues. 1. Indices of oxidative stress. Comp Biochem Physiol C 143:30–35Google Scholar
- Pérez-Jiménez A, Peres H, Rubio VC, Oliva-Teles A (2012) The effect of hypoxia on intermediary metabolism and oxidative status in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed on diets supplemented with methionine and white tea. Comp Biochem Physiol C 155:506–516Google Scholar
- Pinedo-Gil J, Tomás-Vidal A, Larrán-García AM, Tomás-Almenar C, Jover-Cerdá M, Sanz-Calvo MA, Martín-Diana AB (2017a) Enhancement of quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) flesh incorporating barley on diet without negative effect on rearing parameters. Aquacult Int 25:1005–1023. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-016-0091-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pinedo-Gil J, Tomás-Vidal A, Jover-Cerdá M, Tomás-Almenar C, Sanz-Calvo MA, Martín-Diana AB (2017b) Red beet and betaine as ingredients in diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on growth performance, nutrient retention and flesh quality. Arch Anim Nutr 71:486–505. https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2017.1391503 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rabeh NM (2015) Effect of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and its fresh juice against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. World Appl Sci J 33(6):931–938Google Scholar
- Virtanen E (1995) Piecing together the betaine puzzle. Feed Min 3:12–17Google Scholar
- Wu XY, Liu YJ, TIan LX, Mai KS, Yang HJ (2007) Utilization of several different carbohydrate sources by juvenile yellowfin seabream (Sparus latus). J Fish China 31(4):463–471Google Scholar