Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 919–926 | Cite as

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) anesthesia with myrcene: efficacy and physiological responses in comparison with eugenol

  • Ali Taheri Mirghaed
  • Mahyar Yasari
  • Seyed Saeed Mirzargar
  • Seyyed Morteza Hoseini


The aim of the present study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along with the fish biochemical response to anesthesia in comparison with eugenol. In the first experiment, 240 fish were stocked in 12 tanks and acclimatized to experimental conditions for 2 weeks. Then, the fish of each tank were subjected to one concentration of either eugenol (12, 20, 30, 50, 80, and 130 μL/L) or myrcene (100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μL/L) concentrations. Induction time of and recovery time from anesthesia were recorded for each fish separately. Using these results, desired concentrations to induce anesthesia within 60, 180, 300, and 600 s were determined, being 81, 30, 19, and 10 μL/L eugenol and 531, 251, 177, and 111 μL/L myrcene. In the second experiment, 96 fish were stocked in 8 tanks. Six fish were netted from each tank and exposed to the calculated eugenol or myrcene concentrations. Blood samples were taken after the fish reached anesthesia. The results showed that there was no significant difference in serum lactate, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. Increase in the induction time of anesthesia resulted in increased serum glucose with no significant difference between the anesthetics. Increase in induction time of anesthesia led to increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the eugenol-anesthetized fish and aspartate transaminase activity in myrcene-anesthetized fish. In conclusion, myrcene is capable to anesthetize rainbow trout, but at higher concentrations compared to eugenol. In addition, biochemical analysis showed that increase in induction time of anesthesia leads to hyperglycemia and increase in AST and LDH activities depending on anesthetic type.


Anesthesia Eugenol Myrcene Stress Enzyme 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abrishamifar A, Bahonar A, Yousefi P (2011) Anesthetic effect of tricaine methanesulfonate, clove oil and electroanesthesia on lysozyme activity of Oncorhynchus mykiss. Iran J Fish Sci 10:393–402Google Scholar
  2. Auperin B, Baroiller J-F, Ricordel M-J, Fostier A, Prunet P (1997) Effect of confinement stress on circulating levels of growth hormone and two prolactins in freshwater-adapted tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 108:35–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker AG, Parodi TV, Heldwein CG, Zeppenfeld CC, Heinzmann BM, Baldisserotto B (2012) Transportation of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, in water with eugenol and the essential oil of Lippia alba. Fish Physiol Biochem 38:789–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonga SW (1997) The stress response in fish. Physiol Rev 77:591–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caruso G, Genovese L, Maricchiolo G, Modica A (2005) Haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters as stress indicators in Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata farmed in off-shore cages. Aquac Int 13:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Congleton JL (2006) Stability of some commonly measured blood-chemistry variables in juvenile salmonids exposed to a lethal dose of the anaesthetic MS-222. Aquac Res 37:1146–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cornish I, Moon T (1986) The glucose and lactate kinetics of American eels, Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur), under MS 222 anaesthesia. J Fish Biol 28:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cunha JAd, Scheeren CÁ, Salbego J, Gressler LT, Madaloz LM, Bandeira-Junior G, Bianchini AE, Pinheiro CG, Bordignon SA, Heinzmann BM (2017) Essential oils of Cunila galioides and Origanum majorana as anesthetics for Rhamdia quelen: efficacy and effects on ventilation and ionoregulation. Neotrop Ichthyol (In press)Google Scholar
  9. Cunha MA, da Silva BF, Delunardo FAC, Benovit SC, Gomes LC, Heinzmann BM, Baldisserotto B (2011) Anesthetic induction and recovery of Hippocampus reidi exposed to the essential oil of Lippia alba. Neotrop Ichthyol 9:683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cunha MA, de Barros FMC, de Oliveira Garcia L, de Lima Veeck AP, Heinzmann BM, Loro VL, Emanuelli T, Baldisserotto B (2010) Essential oil of Lippia alba: a new anesthetic for silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Aquaculture 306:403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Lima Silva L, Parodi TV, Reckziegel P, de Oliveira Garcia V, Bürger ME, Baldisserotto B, Malmann CA, Pereira AMS, Heinzmann BM (2012) Essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L.: anesthetic effects, mechanism of action and tolerance in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Aquaculture 350:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Oliveira Hashimoto GS, Neto FM, Ruiz ML, Acchile M, Chagas EC, Chaves FCM, Martins ML (2016) Essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Mentha piperita against monogenean parasites and their influence on the hematology of Nile tilapia. Aquaculture 450:182–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freire CMM, Marques MOM, Costa M (2006) Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol 105:161–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaudet M, Racicot JG, Leray C (1975) Enzyme activities of plasma and selected tissues in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J Fish Biol 7:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goulet F, Vachon P, Hélie P (2011) Evaluation of the toxicity of eugenol at anesthetic doses in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Toxicol Pathol 39:471–477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gressler LT, Riffel APK, Parodi TV, Saccol EMH, Koakoski G, Costa ST, Pavanato MA, Heinzmann BM, Caron B, Schmidt D, Llesuy SF, Barcellos LJG, Baldisserotto B (2014) Silver catfish Rhamdia quelen immersion anaesthesia with essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit) Britton or tricaine methanesulfonate: effect on stress response and antioxidant status. Aquac Res 45:1061–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guan W, Li S, Yan R, Tang S, Quan C (2007) Comparison of essential oils of clove buds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and other three traditional extraction methods. Food Chem 101:1558–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hajek G, Klyszejko B, Dziaman R (2006) The anaesthetic effects of clove oil on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Acta Ichthyol Piscat 36(2):93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (2009) Fundamentals of toxicologic pathology. Academic Press, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  20. Heldwein CG, Silva LL, Gai EZ, Roman C, Parodi TV, Bürger ME, Baldisserotto B, Flores ÉMM, Heinzmann BM (2014) S-(+)-Linalool from Lippia alba: sedative and anesthetic for silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Vet Anaesth Analg 41:621–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Heo GJ, Shin G (2010) Efficacy of benzocaine as an anaesthetic for Crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Vet Anaesth Analg 37:132–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hikasa Y, Takase K, Ogasawara T, Ogasawara S (1986) Anesthesia and recovery with tricaine methanesulfonate, eugenol and thiopental sodium in the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 48:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoseini SM (2011) Efficacy of clove powder solution on stress mitigation in juvenile common carps, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). Comp Clin Path 20:359–362Google Scholar
  24. Hoseini SM, Ghelichpour M (2012) Efficacy of clove solution on blood sampling and hematological study in Beluga, Huso huso (L.) Fish Physiol Biochem 38:493–498Google Scholar
  25. Hoseini SM, Nodeh A (2013) Changes in blood biochemistry of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus), following exposure to different concentrations of clove solution. Comp Clin Path 22:9–13Google Scholar
  26. Hoseini SM, Hosseini S, Nodeh A (2011) Serum biochemical characteristics of Beluga, Huso huso (L.), in response to blood sampling after clove powder solution exposure. Fish Physiol Biochem 37:567–572Google Scholar
  27. Hoseini SM, Hedayati A, Ghelichpour M (2014) Plasma metabolites, ions and thyroid hormones levels, and hepatic enzymes’ activity in Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) exposed to waterborne manganese. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 107:84–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoseini SM, Rajabiesterabadi H, Tarkhani R (2015) Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol on iridescent shark, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) in different size classes. Aquac Res 46:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoseini SM, Rajabiesterabadi H, Kordrostami S (2016) Chronic exposure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings to ambient copper: effects on food intake, growth performance, biochemistry and stress resistance. Toxicol Ind Health 32:375–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Keene J, Noakes D, Moccia R, Soto C (1998) The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquac Res 29:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Le PTT, Boyd C (2012) Comparison of phenate and salicylate methods for determination of total ammonia nitrogen in freshwater and saline water. J World Aquac Soc 43:885–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lorenzetti BB, Souza GE, Sarti SJ, Santos Filho D, Ferreira SH (1991) Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34:43–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Marking LL, Meyer FP (1985) Are better anesthetics needed in fisheries? Fisheries 10:2–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mazandarani M, Hoseini SM (2017) Menthol and 1, 8-cineole as new anaesthetics in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquac Res 48:3041–3051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mazandarani M, Hoseini SM, Dehghani Ghomshani M (2017) Effects of linalool on physiological responses of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) and water physico-chemical parameters during transportation. Aquac Res (In press)Google Scholar
  36. Ortuno J, Esteban M, Meseguer J (2002) Effects of four anaesthetics on the innate immune response of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) Fish Shellfish Immunol 12:49–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Pedrazzani AS, Neto AO (2016) The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830). Aquac Res 47:769–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rao V, Menezes A, Viana G (1990) Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 42:877–878CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Roubach R, Gomes LC, Leão Fonseca FA, Val AL (2005) Eugenol as an efficacious anaesthetic for tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier). Aquac Res 36:1056–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Saccol EM, Toni C, Pês TS, Ourique GM, Gressler LT, Silva LV, Mourão RH, Oliveira RB, Baldisserotto B, Pavanato MA (2017a) Anaesthetic and antioxidant effects of Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey.) DC. and Curcuma longa L. essential oils on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Aquac Res 48:2012–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saccol EM, Londero ÉP, Bressan CA, Salbego J, Gressler LT, Silva LV, Mourão RH, Oliveira RB, Llesuy SF, Baldisserotto B (2017b) Oxidative and biochemical responses in Brycon amazonicus anesthetized and sedated with Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey.) DC. and Curcuma longa L. essential oils. Vet Anaesth Analg 44:555–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Salbego J, Toni C, Becker A, Zeppenfeld C, Menezes C, Loro V, Heinzmann B, Baldisserotto B (2017) Biochemical parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after transport with eugenol or essential oil of Lippia alba added to the water. Braz J Biol 77:696–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Salbego J, Becker AG, Gonçalves JF, Menezes CC, Heldwein CG, Spanevello RM, Loro VL, Schetinger MRC, Morsch VM, Heinzmann BM (2014) The essential oil from Lippia alba induces biochemical stress in the silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after transportation. Neotrop Ichthyol 12:811–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shaluei F, Hedayati A, Jahanbakhshi A, Baghfalaki M (2012) Physiological responses of great sturgeon (Huso huso) to different concentrations of 2-phenoxyethanol as an anesthetic. Fish Physiol Biochem 38:1627–1634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Stoskopf M, Posner L (2008) Anesthesia and restraint of laboratory fish. In: Fish R, Brown M, Danneman P, Karas A (eds) Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals. 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, pp 519–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Summerfelt RC, Smith L, Schreck C, Moyle P (1990) Anesthesia, surgery, and related techniques. Methods for fish biology American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland 8:2Google Scholar
  47. Taheri Mirghaed A, Ghelichpour M, Hoseini SM (2016) Myrcene and linalool as new anesthetic and sedative agents in common carp, Cyprinus carpio—comparison with eugenol. Aquaculture 464:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taheri Mirghaed A, Ghelichpour M, Hoseini SM, Amini K (2017) Hemolysis interference in measuring fish plasma biochemical indicators. Fish Physiol Biochem 34:1143–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teixeira RR, Souza RC, Sena AC, Baldisserotto B, Heinzmann BM, Couto RD, Copatti CE (2017) Essential oil of Aloysia triphylla in Nile tilapia: anaesthesia, stress parameters and sensory evaluation of fillets. Aquac Res 48:3383–3392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tondolo JSM, Amaral LP, Simoes LN, Garlet QI, Schindler B, Oliveira TM, BFd S, Gomes LC, Baldisserotto B, Mallmann CA, Heinzmann BM (2013) Anesthesia and transport of fat snook Centropomus parallelus with the essential oil of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez. Neotrop Ichthyol 11:667–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Toni C, Becker AG, Simões LN, Pinheiro CG, de Lima Silva L, Heinzmann BM, Caron BO, Baldisserotto B (2014) Fish anesthesia: effects of the essential oils of Hesperozygis ringens and Lippia alba on the biochemistry and physiology of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Fish Physiol Biochem 40:701–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. van Ginneken V, Boot R, Murk T, van den Thillart G, Balm P (2004) Blood plasma substrates and muscle lactic-acid response after exhaustive exercise in common carp and trout: indications for a limited lactate-shuttle. Anim Biol 54:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Velíšek J, Svobodova Z, Piačková V (2005a) Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Acta Vet Brno 74:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Velíšek J, Stejskal V, Kouřil J, Svobodová Z (2009) Comparison of the effects of four anaesthetics on biochemical blood profiles of perch. Aquac Res 40:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Velíšek J, Svobodova Z, Piackova V, Groch L, Nepejchalova L (2005b) Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Vet Med Czech 50:269–275Google Scholar
  56. Velíšek J, Wlasow T, Gomulka P, Svobodova Z, Novotny L (2007) Effects of 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthesia on sheatfish (Silurus glanis L.). Vet Med Czech 52:103–110Google Scholar
  57. Zahl IH, Kiessling A, Samuelsen OB, Olsen RE (2010) Anesthesia induces stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Fish Physiol Biochem 36:719–730CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Zeppenfeld CC, Toni C, Becker AG, dos Santos Miron D, Parodi TV, Heinzmann BM, Barcellos LJG, Koakoski G, da Rosa JGS, Loro VL, da Cunha MA, Baldisserotto B (2014) Physiological and biochemical responses of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, after transport in water with essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit) Britton. Aquaculture 418:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Inland Waters Aquatic Stocks Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agricultural ResearchEducation and Extension OrganizationGorganIran

Personalised recommendations