Nutritional history does not modulate hepatic oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) submitted to handling stress
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of an acute handling stress on hepatic oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles fed diets differing in lipid so urce and carbohydrate content. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as lipid source and with 20 or 0% gelatinized starch as carbohydrate source. Triplicate groups of fish with 74 g were fed each diet during 13 weeks and then subjected to an acute handling stress. Stress exposure decreased hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Independent of dietary treatment, stress exposure increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO). Stressed fish exhibited lower glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, independent of previous nutritional history. In the VO groups, stress exposure increased glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Diet composition had no effect on Ht and Hb levels. In contrast, dietary carbohydrate decreased hepatic LPO and CAT activity and increased glutathione reductase (GR) and G6PD activities. Dietary lipids had no effect on LPO. Fish fed the VO diets exhibited higher G6PD activity than fish fed the FO diets. In conclusion, dietary carbohydrates contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress in fish. However, under the imposed handling stress conditions, liver enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms were not enhanced, which may explain the overall increased oxidative stress.
KeywordsAntioxidant enzymes Carbohydrates Handling stress Lipid oxidative damage Vegetable oils
This work was partially supported by the FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology), Portugal (project PTDC/MAR-BIO/4107/2012) and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme and national funds through FCT, under the project “PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2011”. C. Castro, A. Peréz-Jiménez, F. Coutinho, and P. Enes were supported by grants (SFRH/BD/76297/2011; SFRH/BPD/64684/2009; SFRH/BD/86799/2012; SFRH/BPD/101012/2014, respectively) from FCT.
Compliance with ethical standards
This experiment was directed by accredited scientists (following FELASA category C recommendations) and conducted according to the European Union Directive (2010/63/EU) on the protection of animals for scientific purposes.
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