Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 631–640 | Cite as

Changes of ammonia, urea contents and transaminase activity in the body during aerial exposure and ammonia loading in Chinese loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus

  • Yun-Long Zhang
  • Hai-Long Zhang
  • Ling-Yu Wang
  • Bei-Yi Gu
  • Qi-Xue Fan


The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to 30 mmol L−1 NH4Cl solution and air to assessing the change of body ammonia and urea contents and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). After 48 h of ammonia exposure, ammonia concentration in the plasma, brain, liver and muscle were 3.3-fold, 5.6-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, those of the control values. Plasma, brain, liver and muscle ammonia concentrations increased to 2.2-fold, 3.3-fold, 2.5-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively, those of control values in response to 48 h of aerial exposure. Within the given treatment (ammonia or aerial exposure), there was no change in plasma, brain and liver urea concentrations between exposure durations. The plasma ALT activity was significantly affected by exposure time during aerial exposure, while the liver ALT activity was not affected by ammonia or aerial exposure. Exposure to NH4Cl or air had no effect on either plasma or liver AST activity. Our results suggested that P. dabryanus could accumulate quite high level of internal ammonia because of the high ammonia tolerance in its cells and tissues, and NH3 volatilization would be a possible ammonia detoxification strategy in P. dabryanus. Urea synthesis was not an effective mechanism to deal with environmental or internal ammonia problem. The significant increase of ALT activity in plasma during aerial exposure, indicating that alanine synthesis through certain amino acid catabolism may be subsistent in P. dabryanus.


Ammonia Urea Aerial exposure Ammonia loading; Paramisgurnus dabryanus 



This work was funded by National Science and Technology Support Program, China (grant No. 2012BAD25B08; 2012BAD25B00).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun-Long Zhang
    • 1
  • Hai-Long Zhang
    • 2
  • Ling-Yu Wang
    • 2
  • Bei-Yi Gu
    • 2
  • Qi-Xue Fan
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Animal Science and TechnologyAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, College of FisheriesHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

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