Enhanced dietary formulation to mitigate winter thermal stress in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): a 2D-DIGE plasma proteome study
Low water temperatures during winter are common in farming of gilthead sea bream in the Mediterranean. This causes metabolic disorders that in extreme cases can lead to a syndrome called “winter disease.” An improved immunostimulatory nutritional status might mitigate the effects of this thermal metabolic stress. A trial was set up to assess the effects of two different diets on gilthead sea bream physiology and nutritional state through plasma proteome and metabolites. Four groups of 25 adult gilthead sea bream were reared during winter months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL) or with a diet called “winter feed” (WF). Proteome results show a slightly higher number of proteins upregulated in plasma of fish fed the WF. These proteins are mostly involved in the immune system and cell protection mechanisms. Lipid metabolism was also affected, as shown both by plasma proteome and by the cholesterol plasma levels. Overall, the winter feed diet tested seems to have positive effects in terms of fish condition and nutritional status, reducing the metabolic effects of thermal stress.
KeywordsAquaculture Gilthead sea bream Plasma Winter disease Winter syndrome Thermal stress Proteomics
This work is part of project 21595-INUTR, co-financed by FEDER through PO Algarve 21 in the framework of QREN 2007–2013. NR was supported by a postdoctoral grant (SFRH/BDP/65578/2009) from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT).
- Andersen F, Lygren B, Maage A, Waagbo R (1998) Interaction between two dietary levels of iron and two forms of ascorbic acid and the effect on growth, antioxidant status and some non-specific immune parameters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Aquaculture 161:437–451. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00291-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bavcevic L, Petrovic S, Crnica M, Corazzin E (2006) Effects of feeding strategy on growth of sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) during winter-spring and possible implications for “winter disease” syndrome. Croat J Fish 64:1–17Google Scholar
- Bayne CJ, Gerwick L, Fujiki K, Nakao M, Yano T (2001) Immune-relevant (including acute phase) genes identified in the livers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by means of suppression subtractive hybridization. Dev Comp Immunol 25:205–217. doi: 10.1016/S0145-305x(00)00057-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Castillo-Briceno P, Arizcun-Arizcun M, Meseguer J, Mulero V, Garcia-Ayala A (2010) Correlated expression profile of extracellular matrix-related molecules during the inflammatory response of the teleost fish gilthead seabream. Dev Comp Immunol 34:1051–1058. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2010.05.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Costas B et al (2012) Effects of dietary amino acids and repeated handling on stress response and brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 161:18–26. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.08.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dias J, Conceicao LEC, Ribeiro AR, Borges P, Valente LMP, Dinis MT (2009) Practical diet with low fish-derived protein is able to sustain growth performance in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during the grow-out phase. Aquaculture 293:255–262. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAO (2012) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2012, Rome, p 209Google Scholar
- Ghisaura S et al (2014) Impact of three commercial feed formulations on farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) metabolism as inferred from liver and blood serum proteomics. Proteome Sci 12. doi: 10.1186/s12953-014-0044-3
- Silva TS, da Costa AM, Conceicao LE, Dias JP, Rodrigues PM, Richard N (2014) Metabolic fingerprinting of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) liver to track interactions between dietary factors and seasonal temperature variations. PeerJ 2 . doi: 10.7717/peerj.527 e527
- Sitja-Bobadilla A, Pena-Llopis S, Gomez-Requeni P, Medale F, Kaushik S, Perez-Sanehez J (2005) Effect of fish meal replacement by plant protein sources on non-specific defence mechanisms and oxidative stress in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 249:387–400. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sola L, Moretti A, Crosetti D, Karaiskou N, Magoulas A, Rossi AR, Rye M, Triantafyllidis A, Tsigenopoulos CS (2006) Gilthead seabream—Sparus aurata. In: Crosetti D, Lapègue S, Olesen I, Svaasand T (eds) Genetic effects of domestication, culture and breeding of fish and shellfish, and their impacts on wild populations. GENIMPACT project: evaluation of genetic impact of aquaculture activities on native populations. A European network. WP1 workshop “Genetics of domestication, breeding and enhancement of performance of fish and shellfish”, Viterbo, Italy, 12–17th June, 2006, p 6Google Scholar
- Tibaldi E, Hakim Y, Uni Z, Tulli F, de Francesco M, Luzzana U, Harpaz S (2006) Effects of the partial substitution of dietary fish meal by differently processed soybean meals on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and activity of intestinal brush border enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 261:182–193. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.06.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar