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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 591–602 | Cite as

Effects of amino acid supplementations on metabolic and physiological parameters in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under stress

  • Marcelino Herrera
  • María Antonia Herves
  • Inmaculada Giráldez
  • Kristin Skar
  • Hanne Mogren
  • Atle Mortensen
  • Velmurugu Puvanendran
Article

Abstract

The effects of tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) diet supplementation on the stress and metabolism of the Atlantic cod have been studied. Fish were fed diet supplemented with Trp or Phe or control diet for 1 week. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to air exposure or heat shock. Following samples of blood, liver and muscle were taken from the fish and were analyzed for stress and metabolic indicators. After an air exposure, plasma cortisol levels in fish fed with Trp and Phe diets were lower compared to the fish fed the control diet. Diets containing both amino acids increased significantly the liver transaminase activities in juvenile cod. During thermal stress, high Trp contents had significant effects on fructose biphosphatase activity though Phe did not. Overall, activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and phosphofructokinase increased significantly for both amino acid diets. For the thermal stress, fish had the highest values of those activities for the 3Trp diet. Trp content in the diet had significant effects on the transaminase activity in muscle during air stress compared to fish fed control and Phe diets. Muscle alanine transaminase activity for thermal stress in fish fed any diet was not significantly different from the control. Both Trp and Phe supplementations reduced the stress markers in the cod; hence, they could be used as additives for the stress attenuation. However, they also raised the activity of key enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, mainly the Trp diets.

Keywords

Stress Cod Welfare Tryptophan Phenylalanine Metabolism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all the staff at the CMAR in Tromsø for their help in successfully conducting this experiment. This work has been supported by Aquaexcel project (FP7). M. Herrera post-doc contract is supported by INIA-FSE.

Compliance with ethical standards

The experiment complied with the guidelines of the European Union Council (2010/63/EU) and the Norwegian Animal Welfare Act for the use of laboratory animals. According to the Spanish RD1201/2005, M. Herrera is certified (type C) for working and designing experiments with animals.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IFAPA Centro Agua del PinoCartayaSpain
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias ExperimentalesUniversidad de HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  3. 3.Centre for Marine Aquaculture ResearchKvaløyaNorway
  4. 4.NofimaTromsøNorway

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