Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 351–360 | Cite as

NAD-preferring malic enzyme: localization, regulation and its potential role in herring (Clupea harengus) sperm cells

  • Natalia Niedźwiecka
  • Jadwiga Gronczewska
  • Edward F. Skorkowski


Herring spermatozoa exhibit a high activity of NAD-preferring malic enzyme (NAD-ME). This enzyme is involved in the generation of NADH or NADPH in the decarboxylation of malate to form pyruvate and requires some divalent cations to express its activity. In order to confirm that NAD-ME isolated from herring sperm cells is localized in mitochondria, we performed immunofluorescent analysis and assayed spectrophotometrically the malic enzyme reaction. Production of polyclonal rabbit antibodies against NAD-ME from herring spermatozoa enabled identification of mitochondrial localization of this enzyme inside herring spermatozoa. The kinetic studies revealed that NAD-ME was competitively inhibited by ATP up to tenfold. Addition of fumarate reversed ATP-dependent inhibition of NAD-ME to 55 % of its maximum activity. The pH-dependent regulation of malic enzyme activity was also examined. Malic enzyme showed maximum activity at pH near 7.0 in all studied conditions. Finally, the role of malic enzyme activity regulation in mitochondria of herring sperm cells was discussed.


NAD-ME Immunolocalization Mitochondria ATP Herring sperm 



This paper is dedicated to Professor Mariusz M. Żydowo former head of the Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Gdańsk and lecturer at Gdańsk University on his 90th birthday. This study was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education Project No. 538-L165-0807-12.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalia Niedźwiecka
    • 1
  • Jadwiga Gronczewska
    • 1
  • Edward F. Skorkowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Evolution, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of GdańskGdańskPoland

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