Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 297–307 | Cite as

Modulation of appetite, lipid and glucose metabolism of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by different dietary protein levels

  • Jiao Li
  • Liwei Liu
  • Xu-Fang Liang
  • Xiaochen Yuan
  • Jie Li
  • Bin Li
  • Qingchao Wang
  • Jinguang Fang
  • Min Xue
  • Jia Wang


This study was undertaken to explore the systemic metabolic strategies of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to maintain growth when fed with different dietary protein levels. The optimal growth group and two growing discomfort groups were selected through the basic data, to explain the growth difference from appetite regulation and lipid and glucose metabolism perspective. Three experimental diets were formulated with three dietary protein levels at 200.3, 296.1 and 442.9 g kg−1, named P1, P2 and P3, respectively. Juvenile grass carp (initial body weight 12.28 ± 0.14 g) were fed with three diets with 3 replications per dietary treatment in an indoor recirculation system for an 8-week feeding trial. Fish fed with diet P2 dietary group showed significantly higher WG, SGR, FI and PER than other groups. Compared with other groups, mRNA expressions of NPY, Y8a and Y8b in fish fed with P2 significantly down-regulated, while the expressions of CCK and CART in fish fed with P3 significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). With increasing dietary protein levels, G6Pase, GK, PK and PEPCK were all significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). For lipid metabolism, the mRNA expression of ACC in P1 dietary group was significantly higher than P3 dietary group; besides, LPL expression in P3 group was significantly higher than other two groups (P < 0.05). PPARα expression in P2 was significantly lower than other groups (P < 0.05). These results suggested that grass carp fed with P2 (296.1 g kg−1 protein level) showed highest weight gain, contributed to more balanced nutrient metabolism and appetite regulation. Too high dietary protein (442.9 g kg−1) should be avoided because it induced lowest PER, body lipid and liver lipid, and inhibited glucose and lipid metabolism in juvenile grass carp.


Appetite Ctenopharyngodon idellus Dietary protein level Growth Glucose metabolism Lipid metabolism 



Feed intake


Weight gain


Final body weight


Specific growth ratio


Protein efficiency ratio


Viscerosomatic index


Hepatosomatic index


Survival ratio






High-density lipoprotein


Low-density lipoprotein


Neuropeptide Y


Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript




Acetyl-CoA carboxylase


Lipoprotein lipase


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type α






Pyruvate kinase


Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase



This work was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB138601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272641) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2662015PY041 and 2015QC023).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiao Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Liwei Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xu-Fang Liang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaochen Yuan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jie Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bin Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qingchao Wang
    • 1
  • Jinguang Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Min Xue
    • 3
  • Jia Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Fisheries, Chinese Perch Research CenterHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Key Lab of Freshwater Animal BreedingMinistry of AgricultureWuhanChina
  3. 3.National Aquafeed Safety Assessment Station, Feed Research InstituteChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

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