Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion
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Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.
KeywordsBrain Fish Hydrostatic pressure Monoamine Swimming
We would like to thank Ms. Chihiro Yamauchi, University of the Ryukyus, and Dr. Yoriko Akimoto, Mr. Takahiro Nakashita, Mr. Seiya Mochinaga and Mr. Takeshi Yoshihara, Kyushu University, for their support and help in sampling. Dr. Sethu Selvaraj, Kyushu University, Dr. Takeshi Onuma, Osaka University, and Mr. Makoto Yoshida, The University of Tokyo, provided stimulating discussions and helpful advice. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS fellows (Grant Numbers 10J02886 and 12J02083) to TI from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
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