Effects of lipid-lowering pharmaceutical clofibrate on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellal Val.) fed with the high non-protein energy diets
- 333 Downloads
This study investigated the effects of clofibrate treatment on blood lipids, hepatic enzyme activities and relative expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of grass carp fed with high non-protein energy diets. For that purpose, five diets were formulated: a commercial-like diet (Control), a high-carbohydrate diet (HC), a high-fat diet (HF) and two diets identical to the HC and HF diets, but supplemented with 1.25 g kg−1 clofibrate (HC + Clo and HF + Clo diets). Grass carp fed the HC and HF diet exhibited increases in blood lipids and body fat compared with the control group after 4 weeks. In the clofibrate treatment groups, there was a marked decrease in triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations of plasma, and total lipids of the whole body, mesentery adipose tissue and liver tissue. Fish treated with clofibrate exhibited increased hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase activity, but did not show any changes in carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I activity compared with HC and HF diets without clofibrate. Clofibrate treatment had no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and CPT I mRNA expression. However, there was an increase in lipoprotein lipase expression in the clofibrate-treated groups. In addition, the relative mRNA expression levels of hepatic de novo lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase and acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase) were significantly higher in the fish fed the HC diet than those of other groups, and clofibrate inhibited this increase. These results suggest that clofibrate has the hypolipidaemic effects and affects lipid metabolism in grass carp.
KeywordsGrass carp Clofibrate High non-protein energy diets Lipid metabolism Gene expression
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272641 and 31172420), the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB138601), the Special Fund for Agro-Scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (201003020) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011PY030).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
- Gao W, Liu YJ, Tian LX, Mai KS, Liang GY, Yang HJ, Huai MY, Luo WJ (2010) Effect of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on growth performance, body composition, nutrient utilization and hepatic enzymes activities of herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquac Nutr 16:327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo Q, Wang PR, Milot DP, Ippolito MC, Hernandez M, Burton CA, Wright SD, Chao YS (2001) Regulation of lipid metabolism and gene expression by fenofibrate in hamsters. BBA-Mol Cell Biol 1533:220–232Google Scholar
- Kersten S, Wahli W (2000) Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor agonists. New approaches to drug development. Springer, Berlin, pp 141–151Google Scholar
- Rørvik KA, Alne H, Gaarder M, Ruyter B, Måseide N, Jakobsen J, Berge R, Sigholt T, Thomassen M (2007) Does the capacity for energy utilization affect the survival of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., during natural outbreaks of infectious pancreatic necrosis? J Fish Dis 30:399–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruyter B, Andersen Ø, Dehli A, Östlund Farrants AK, Gjøen T, Thomassen MS (1997) Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): effects on PPAR transcription and acyl-CoA oxidase activity in hepatocytes by peroxisome proliferators and fatty acids. BBA-Lipid Lipid Met 1348:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shimeno S, Kheyyali D, Shikata T (1995) Metabolic response to dietary lipid to protein ratios in common carp. Fish Sci 61:977–980Google Scholar
- Vu-Dac N, Chopin-Delannoy S, Gervois P, Bonnelye E, Martin G, Fruchart JC, Laudet V, Staels B (1998) The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and Rev-erbα mediate the species-specific regulation of apolipoprotein AI expression by fibrates. J Biol Chem 273:25713–25720CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar