Stocking density and Piscirickettsia salmonis infection effect on Patagonian blennie (Eleginops maclovinus, Cuvier 1830) skeletal muscle intermediate metabolism
- 246 Downloads
The need to expand aquaculture production has led to other fish to be considered as potential species for culture, such as the sub-Antarctic notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus (Valenciennes, 1830). The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of density and pathogen infection by protein extract of Piscirickettsia salmonis on skeletal muscle metabolism. In a first experiment, specimens were submitted to three different stocking densities: (1) 3.1 kg m−3, (2) 15 kg m−3 and (3) 60 kg m−3, for a period of 10 days. In a second experiment, metabolic changes caused by an infection of P. salmonis protein extract (a single injection of 0.5 μL P. salmonis protein extract g body weight−1 was inoculated in the fish) and its combined effect with stocking density was assessed during a period of 10 days. This study concludes that stress caused by high stocking density led to the reorganization of some metabolic routes to fulfill skeletal muscle energy needs. Furthermore, infection response by pathogen P. salmonis differed when stocking density increased, suggesting an increase of energy needs with density in skeletal muscle of infected fish.
KeywordsE. maclovinus Metabolism P. salmonis Skeletal muscle Stress
Alanine aminotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206)
Aspartate aminotransferase (EC 220.127.116.11)
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid
Glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168)
Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124)
Lactate dehydrogenase oxidase (EC 126.96.36.199)
This study was carried out in the framework of FONDECYT Projects 11080168 and 1110235 and FONDAP-INCAR, No. 15110027. We thank Dr. Lafayette Eaton for his help checking this manuscript and the Dirección de Investigación of the Universidad Austral de Chile (DID).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
- Arjona FJ, Vargas-Chacoff L, Ruiz-Jarabo I, Gonçalves O, Páscoa I, Martín del Río MP, Mancera JM (2009) Tertiary stress responses in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) to osmotic acclimation: implications for osmoregulation, energy metabolism and growth. Aquaculture 287:419–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carbonara P, Scolamacchia M, Spedicato MT, Zupa W, McKinley RS, Lembo G (2014) Muscle activity as a key indicator of welfare in farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. 1758). Aquac Res doi: 10.1111/are.12369
- Ibieta P, Tapia V, Venegas C, Hausdorf M, Takle H (2011) Chilean Salmon farming on the horizon of sustainability: review of the development of a highly intensive production, the ISA crisis and implemented actions to reconstruct a more sustainable aquaculture industry. In: Sladonja B (ed) Aquaculture and the environment: a shared destiny. Intech, Croatia, p 246Google Scholar
- Keppler D, Decker K (1974) Glycogen determination with amyloglucosidase. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, New York, pp 1127–1131Google Scholar
- Mancera JM, Vargas-Chacoff L, García-López A, Kleszczyńska A, Kalamarz H, Martínez-Rodríguez G, Kulczykowska E (2008) High density and food deprivation affect arginine vasotocin, isotocin and melatonin in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 149:92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mommsen TP (1984) Metabolism of the fish gill. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol XB. Academic Press, New York, pp 203–238Google Scholar
- Moore S (1968) Amino acid analysis: aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent for the ninhydrin reaction. J Chem Biol 1242:6281–6283Google Scholar
- Nakano K, Tagawa M, Hirano T (1997) Effects of ambient salinities on carbohydrate metabolism in two species of tilapia: Oreochromis mossambicus and O. nicolicus. Fish Sci 63:338–343Google Scholar
- Pequeño G, Pavés H, Bertrán C, Vargas-Chacoff L (2010) Seasonal limnetic feeding regime of the “robalo” Eleginops maclovinus (Valenciennes 1830), in the Valdivia river, Chile. Gayana 74:47–56Google Scholar
- Sangiao-Alvarellos S, Laíz-Carrión R, Guzman JM, Martín del Río MP, Miguez JM, Mancera JM, Soengas JL (2003) Acclimation of S. auratus to various salinities alters energy metabolism of osmoregulatory and nonosmoregulatory organs. Am J Physiol 285:R897–R907Google Scholar
- Vargas-Chacoff L, Calvo A, Ruiz-Jarabo I, Villarroel F, Muñoz JL, Tinoco AB, Cárdenas S, Mancera JM (2011) Growth performance, osmoregulatory and metabolic modifications in red porgy fry, Pagrus pagrus, under different environmental salinities and stocking densities. Aquac Res 42:1269–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar