n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods
Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to ‘spare’ the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species.
KeywordsFish oil replacement Oncorhynchus mykiss Omega-3 Leptin Ghrelin Linseed oil Olive oil Palm oil Sunflower oil
This research was supported under the Australian Research Council’s Discovery Projects funding scheme (Projects DP0772271 and DP1093570). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the Australian Research Council. The authors also express their gratitude to Dr. Richard Smullen (Ridley Aquafeed) for kindly donating the raw materials used for experimental feed preparation.
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