Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1441–1447 | Cite as

Effect of yeast polysaccharide on some hematologic parameter and gut morphology in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

  • Huiling Zhu
  • Huiyu Liu
  • Jing Yan
  • Rui Wang
  • Lihe Liu


A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary yeast polysaccharides on some hematologic parameters and intestinal morphology of channel catfish. Channel catfish were fed diets containing yeast polysaccharides at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 % for 7 weeks. Each diet was provided to 10 channel catfish specimens (5.82 ± 0.13 g initial weight) replicated 3 times in individual 250 L fiberglass tanks. Some hematologic parameters, leukocyte phagocytic activity, and intestinal morphology were monitored. After 7 weeks of trial, 0.2 % yeast polysaccharides resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) monocyte numbers. Furthermore, fish fed 0.2 % yeast polysaccharide diet had higher (P < 0.05) phagocytic rate of leukocyte. And 0.3 % yeast polysaccharide enhanced (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of leukocyte. Histological evaluation showed yeast polysaccharide supplementation increased the height of intestine fold (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 %) and the thick of muscular layers (0.2 %) in intestine (P < 0.05). In addition, 0.1 and 0.3 % yeast polysaccharide supplementation improved the number of goblet cells (P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicate that yeast polysaccharides supplementation could affect blood monocytes, improve leukocytes phagocytic activity, and the development of intestine in channel catfish.


Yeast polysaccharides Hematology Intestinal morphology Channel catfish 


  1. Abdel-Tawwab M, Abdel-Rahman AM, Ismael NEM (2008) Evalution of commercial live baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a growth and immunity promoter for Fry Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) challenged in situ with Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture 280:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bondad-Reantaso MG, Subasinghe RP, Arthur JR, Ogawa K, Chinabut S, Adlard R, Tan Z, Shariff M (2005) Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture. Vet Para 132:249–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burr G, Hume M, Neill WH, Gatlin DM III (2008) Effects of prebiotics on nutrient digestibility of a soybean-meal-based diet by red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). Aquacult Res 39:1680–1686Google Scholar
  4. Castillo M, Martin-Orue SM, Taylor-Pickard JA, Perez JF, Gasa J (2008) Use of manna oligosaccharides and zinc chelate as growth promoters and diarrhea preventative in weaning pigs: effects on microbiota and gut function. J Anim Sci 86:94–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cerezuela R, Cuesta A, Meseguer J, Esteban MA (2008) Effects of inulin on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) innate immune parameters. Fish Shellfish Immunol 24:663–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang CF, Chen HY, Su MS, Liao IC (2000) Immunomodulation by dietary β-1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol 10:505–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de los Solis Santos F, Farnall MB, Téllez G, Balog JM, Anthony NB, Torres-Rodriguez A, Higgins S, Hargis BM, Donoghue AM (2005) Effect of prebiotic on gut development and ascites incidence of broilers reared in a hypoxic environment. Poult Sci 84:1092–1100Google Scholar
  8. Deplancke B, Gaskins HR (2001) Microbial modulation of innate defense: goblet cells and the intestinal mucus layer. Am J Clin Nutr 73:1131S–1141SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Spring P, Sweetman J, Moate R, Davies SJ (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal histology and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 300:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farhangi M, Carter CG, Hardy RW (2001) Growth, physiological and immunological responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different dietary inclusion levels of dehulled lupin (Lupinus angustifolius). Aquacult Res 32:329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forder REA, Howarth GS, Tivey DR, Hughest RJ (2007) Bacterial modulation of small intestinal goblet cells and mucin composition during early post hatch development of poultry. Poult Sci 86:2396–2403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hai NV, Fotedar R (2009) Comparison of the effects of the prebiotics (Bio-Mos® and β-1,3-d-glucan) and the customized probiotics (Pseudomonas synxantha and P. aeruginosa) on the culture of juvenile western king prawns (Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouye, 1896). Aquaculture 289:310–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoseinifar SH, Mirvaghefi A, Merrifield DL, Amiri BM, Yelghi S, Bastamo KD (2011) The study of some haematological and serum biochemical parameters of juvenile beluga (Huso huso) fed oligofructose. Fish Physiol Biochem 37:91–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Janardhana V, Broadway MM, Bruce MP, Lowenthal JW, Geier MS, Hughes RJ, Bean AGD (2009) Prebiotics modulated immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chicken. J Nutr 139:1404–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klinken V, Jan-Willem B, Dekker J, Buller HA, Einerhand AWC (1995) Mucin gene structure and expression: protection versus adhesion. Am J Physiol 269:G613–G627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lochmann R, Phillips H, Xie L (2011) Effects of a dairy-yeast prebiotic and water hardness on the growth performance, mineral composition and gut microflora of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in recirculating systems. Aquaculture 320:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mathews ES, Warinner JE, Weeks BA (1990) Assays of immune function in fish macrophages. Techniques used as indicators of environmental stress. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher DP, Anderson BS, Robertson BS (eds) Techniques in fish immunology. SOS, Fair Haven, pp 155–163Google Scholar
  19. McCracken BA, Spurlock ME, Roos MA, Zuckermann FA, Gaskins HR (1999) Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine. J Nutr 129:613–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mowry RW (1963) The special value of methods that color both acidic and vicinal hydroxyl groups in the histochemical study of mucins. With revised directions for the colloidal iron stain, the use of alcian blue G8x and their combinations with the periodic acid–schiff reaction. Ann NY Acad Sci 106:402–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ndong D, Chen YY, Lin YH, Vaseeharan B, Chen JC (2007) The immune response of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus and its susceptibility to Streptococcus iniae under stress in low and high temperatures. Fish Shellfish Immunol 22:686–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Olivier G, Eaton CA, Campbel N (1988) Interaction between Aeromonas salmonicida and peritoneal macrophage of Brook trout SalÍelinus fontinalis. Vet Immunol Immunop 12:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Øverland M, Sørensen M, Storebakken T, Penn M, Krogdahl Å, Skrede A (2009) Pea protein concentrate substituting fish meal or soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)—effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass composition, gut health, and physical feed quality. Aquaculture 288:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patterson JA, Burkholder KM (2003) Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poult Sci 82:627–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Peet-Schwering CMC, Jansman AJM, Smidt H, Yoon I (2007) Effects of yeast culture on performance, gut integrity, and blood cell composition of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 85:3099–3109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Refstie S, Baeverfjord G, Seim RP, Elvebø O (2010) Effects of dietary yeast cell wall β-glucans and MOS on performance, gut health, and salmon lice resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed sunflower and soybean meal. Aquaculture 305:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reid G (2008) Probiotics and prebiotics-progress and challenges. Int Dairy J 18:969–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robinson EH, Li MH (1996) A practical guide to nutrition, feed, and feeding of catfish. Bulletin, vol 1041. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, MSGoogle Scholar
  29. Salze G, McLean E, Schwarz MH, Craig SR (2008) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide enhances salinity tolerance and gut development of larval cobia. Aquaculture 274:148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sang HM, Fotedar R (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798). Fish Shellfish Immunol 28:483–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scholz U, Garcia DG, Ricque D, Cruz SLE, Vargas AF, Latchford J (1999) Enhancement of vibriosis resistance in juvenile Penaeus vannamei by supplementation of diets with different yeast products. Aquaculture 176:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Secombes CJ, Fletcher TC (1992) The role of phagocytes in the protective mechanisms of fish. Annu Rev Fish Dis 2:53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shashidhara RG, Devegowda G (2003) Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on broiler breeder production traits and immunity. Poult Sci 82:1319–1325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Smiricky-Tjardes MR, Grieshop CM, Flickinger EA, Bauer LL, Fahey GC Jr (2003) Dietary galactooligosaccharides affect ileal and total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concentrations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs. J Anim Sci 81:2535–2545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Soltanian S, Thai TQ, Dhont J, Sorgeloos B, Bossier P (2007) The protective effect against Vibrio campbellii in Artemia nauplii by pure β-glucan and isogenic yeast cells differing in β-glucan and chitin content operated with a source-dependent time lag. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:1003–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principals and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Swain SK, Rangacharyulu PV, Sarkar S, Das KM (1996) Effect of a probiotic supplement on growth, nutrient utilization and carcass composition in mrigal fry. J Aquat 4:29–35Google Scholar
  38. Szilagyi A (2002) Lactose-a potential prebiotic. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1591–1602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Teitelbaum JE, Walker WA (2002) Nutritional impact of pre- and pro-biotics as protective gastrointestinal organisms. Annu Rev Nutr 22:107–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Robaina L, Real F, Sweetman J, Tort L, Izquierdo MS (2007) Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:969–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Walsh CJ, Luer CA (1998) Comparative phagocytic and pinocytic activities of leucocytes from peripheral blood and lymphomyeloid tissues of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum Bonaterre) and the clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria Bosc). Fish Shellfish Immunol 8:197–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Welker TL, Lim C, Yildirim-Aksoy M, Shelby R, Klesius PH (2007) Immune response and resistance to stress and Edwardsiella ictaluri, fed diets containing commercial whole cell yeast or yeast subcomponents. J World Aquacult Soc 38:24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. White LA, Newman MC, Cromwell GL, Lindemann MD (2002) Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 80:2619–2628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Yan L, Zhou XQ (2006) Dietary glutamine supplementation improves structure and function of intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquaculture 256:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yeh SP, Chang CA, Chang CY, Liu CH, Cheng W (2008) Dietary sodium alginate administration affects the fingerling growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. and iridovirus, and juvenile non-specific immune responses of the orangespotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Fish Shellfish Immunol 5:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yilmaz E, Genc MA, Genc E (2007) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Isr J Aquacult-Bamid 59:182–188Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huiling Zhu
    • 1
  • Huiyu Liu
    • 1
  • Jing Yan
    • 1
  • Rui Wang
    • 1
  • Lihe Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Department of Feed ScienceWuhan Polytechnic UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations