Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 573–584 | Cite as

Effect of substituting live feed with formulated feed on the reproductive performance and fry survival of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens (Regan, 1910)

  • Sagar C. Mandal
  • Mahinder P. S. Kohli
  • Pronob Das
  • Soibam K. Singh
  • Sukham Munilkumar
  • Kamal Sarma
  • Kartik Baruah


This study aimed to elucidate the effect of partial or complete replacement of live feed (LF) (Tubifex) with formulated feed (FF) on the reproductive performance of Betta splendens. Three hundred B. splendens fry (average weight 0.19 ± 0.01 g) were equally distributed into five different groups, each with three replicates. They were fed for 105 days with following different diets: control (C)—100% LF; T1—75% LF, 25% FF; T2—50% LF, 50% FF; T3—25% LF, 75% FF, and T4—100% FF. Results showed that the average number of hatched larvae (654 ± 101) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (428 ± 70), after completion of three spawning, were recorded highest in the control group, which was, however, not significantly different from the T1, T2, and T3 groups. At the end of the feeding trial, the highest hatching percentage (90.3%) was registered in the T2 group, which was not significantly different from the control and T1 groups. The T2 group also recorded highest fry survival (65.54%) after completion of three spawning, which was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from the T1 and T3 groups. Control diet contained higher saturated fatty acid (63.23%) than formulated diet (29.80%). In the whole-body tissue, highest level of EPA (0.42%) and DHA (3.13%) were found in the T4 group followed by T3 group. The DHA/EPA ration was recorded highest in the T2 group (10.96%), which did not differ significantly from the T1 and T3 groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between saturated fatty acid levels in fish whole-body tissue and number of hatched larvae (Y = 30.81 × −825.3, R 2 = 0.968) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (Y = 21.38 × −580.9, R 2 = 0.967). Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the live feed Tubifex can be replaced up to 50% without any adverse effect on the reproductive performance and fry survival of B. splendens.


Betta splendens Live feed replacement Tubifex Fatty acid profile Reproductive performance 



The first author is thankful to the Director, Central Institute of Fisheries Education (ICAR), Mumbai, India, for providing facilities and the Vice-chancellor, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, India, for granting permission to carry out the research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sagar C. Mandal
    • 1
  • Mahinder P. S. Kohli
    • 2
  • Pronob Das
    • 2
  • Soibam K. Singh
    • 2
  • Sukham Munilkumar
    • 3
  • Kamal Sarma
    • 4
  • Kartik Baruah
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of AquacultureCollege of Fisheries, CAULembucherraIndia
  2. 2.Division of AquacultureCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and PhysiologyCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Division of Fisheries ScienceCentral Agricultural Research Institute, ICARPort BlairIndia
  5. 5.Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent UniversityGhentBelgium

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