Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 499–509 | Cite as

Acute and chronic effects of endosulfan on the haemato-immunological and histopathological responses of a threatened freshwater fish, spotted murrel, Channa punctatus

  • Kamal Sarma
  • A. K. Pal
  • N. P. Sahu
  • R. S. Dalvi
  • Nirupama Chatterjee
  • S. C. Mukherjee
  • Kartik Baruah


Two experiments, one short-term and one long-term, were conducted to elucidate the acute and chronic effects, respectively, of endosulfan exposure on the haemato-immunological and histopathological responses of Channa puncatatus. In the short-term study, fish were exposed to sublethal endosulfan (8.1 μg l−1) for 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. In the long-term study, fish were fed with normal diet and simultaneously either exposed to endosulfan (1.2 μg l−1) for 90 days or not. Results showed that the ascorbic acid levels in both the liver and the muscle decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by acute and chronic endosulfan exposure. The haemoglobin (Hb) level reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by 15.5% within 12 h of acute endosulfan exposure, further decreased by 25.8% after 24 h of exposure, however, thereafter the values increased and at the end of 72 h returned to normal levels. Almost similar trend was observed for the erythrocyte (RBC) count. The WBC count and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) value showed a general increasing trend with increase in the duration of acute endosulfan exposure. The chronic exposure of C. punctatus to endosulfan significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the Hb level, RBC and WBC counts, NBT reduction value and the plasma parameters such as plasma protein, albumin (A) and globulin (G) compared with that of the control (except for A/G ratio). Endosulfan exposure also severely altered the liver histological structure. Overall results indicated that both short-term acute and long-term chronic endosulfan exposure had a significant impact on the haemato-immunological parameters and tissue histopathology of C. punctatus.


Endosulfan Channa punctatus Haematology Histology Immune responses 



The authors are grateful to the Director, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, for providing all the facilities for this study. The first author acknowledges the financial support from Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamal Sarma
    • 1
  • A. K. Pal
    • 2
  • N. P. Sahu
    • 2
  • R. S. Dalvi
    • 2
  • Nirupama Chatterjee
    • 2
  • S. C. Mukherjee
    • 3
  • Kartik Baruah
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Fisheries ScienceCentral Agricultural Research Institute, ICARPort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Division of Fish Nutrition and BiochemistryCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationVersova, MumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Fish Pathology and MicrobiologyCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationVersova, MumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Department of Animal ProductionGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

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