Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 725–732 | Cite as

Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp

  • Adolfo Jatobá
  • Felipe do Nascimento Vieira
  • Celso Carlos Buglione-Neto
  • José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño’
  • Bruno  Corrêa Silva
  • Walter Quadros Seiftter
  • Edemar Roberto Andreatta


The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m−2 and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m−2, in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency.


Oreochromisniloticus Litopenaeusvannamei Hematology Bacterial microbiota Growth 



The authors are grateful to Professor Elpídio Beltrame (in memoriam) for his dedication during the preparation of this study; to Guabi for providing the feed; to Aqua Sul hatchery for providing the Nile tilapia juveniles; to CNPq for the scholarship; and to Secretaria Especial de Aquicultura e Pesca for the financial support.


  1. Aly SM, Ahmed WA, Ghareeb AA, Mohamed MF (2008) Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol 25:128–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biao X, Kaijin Y (2007) Shrimp farming in China: operating characteristics, environmental impact and perspectives. Ocean Coast Manag 50:538–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyd CE, Massaut L (1999) Risks associated with the use of chemicals in pond aquaculture. Aquaculture 20:113–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carnevali O, Vivo L, Sulpizio R, Gioacchini G, Olivotto I, Silvi S, Cresci A (2006) Growth improvement by probiotic in European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.), with particular attention to IGF-1, myostatin and cortisol gene expression. Aquaculture 258:430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castex M, Chim L, Pham D, Lemaire P, Wabete N, Nicolas J, Schmidely P, Mariojouls C (2008) Probiotic P. acidilactici application in shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris culture subject to vibriosis in New Caledonia. Aquaculture 275:182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiu C, Guu Y, Liu C, Pan T, Cheng W (2007) Immune responses and gene expression in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, induced by Lactobacillus plantarum. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:364–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Costa AM, Buglione CC, Bezerra FL, Martins PCC, Barracco MA (2009) Immune assessment of farm-reared Penaeus vannamei shrimp naturally infected by IMNV in NE Brazil. Aquaculture 291:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Man JC, Rogosa M, Sharpe ME (1960) A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. J Applied Bacteriol 23:30–135Google Scholar
  9. Delcenserie V, Martel D, Lamoureux M, Amiot J, Boutin Y, Roy D (2008) Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in the intestinal tract. Curr Issues Mol Biol 10:37–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Haroun RE, Goda AM, Chowdhury MAK (2006) Effect of dietary probiotic biogens supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquac Res 37:1473–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flegel TW (2006) Detection of major penaeid shrimp viruses in Asia, a historical perspective with emphasis on Thailand. Aquaculture 258:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fuller R (1989) Probiotics in man and animals, a review. J Appl Bacteriol 66:365–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galdeano CM, Perdigón G (2004) Role of viability of probiotic strains in their persistence in the gut and in mucosal immune stimulation. J Appl Microbiol 97:673–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gatesoupe FJ (1999) The use of probiotics in aquaculture. Aquaculture 180:147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gatesoupe FJ (2008) Updating the importance of lactic acid bacteria in fish farming: natural occurrence and probiotic treatments. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 14(1):107–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gill HS (2003) Probiotics to enhance anti-infective defenses in the gastrointestinal tract. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17(5):755–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldenfarb PB, Bowyer FP, Hall E, Brosius E (1971) Reproducibility in the hematology laboratory: the microhematocrit determination. Am J Clin Pathol 56:35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Grimón ROR (2003) La tilapia y su efecto em la prevalência del vírus de la mancha blanca (WSSV) en poblaciones de camarón, Master’s thesis, Ciencias, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil—EcuadorGoogle Scholar
  19. Jatobá A, Vieira FN, Buglione C, Silva BC, Mouriño JLP, Jerônimo GT, Dotta G, Martins ML (2008) Lactic-acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of Nile tilapia utilized as probiotic. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 43(9):1201–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klaenhammer TD, Kullen MJ (1999) Selection and design of probiotics. Intern J Food Microbiol 50:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar R, Mukherjee SC, Ranjan R, Nayak SK (2008) Enhanced innate immune parameters in Labeo rohita (Ham.) following oral administration of Bacillus subtilis. Fish Shellfish Immunol 24:168–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lara-Flores M, Olvera-Novoa MA, Guzman-Méndez BE, López-Madrid W (2003) Use of the bacteria Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture 216:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsuzaki T, Chin J (2000) Modulating immune responses with probiotic bacteria. Immunol Cell Biol 78:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meurer F, Hayashi C, Costa MM, Mauerwerk VL, Freccia A (2006) Utilização de Saccharomyces cerevisiae como probiótico para tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual submetidas a um desafio sanitário. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 35(5):1881–1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosenfeld G (1947) Corante pancrômico para hematologia e citologia clínica. Nova combinação do May-Grünwald e do Giemsa num só corante de emprego rápido, vol 20, Memórias do Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, pp 329–334Google Scholar
  26. Secombes CJ, Hardie LJ, Daniels dos componentes G (1996) Citokines in fish: an update. Fish Shellfish immunol 6:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Skrede G, Storebakken T, Skrede A, Sahlstrøm S, Sørensen M, Shearer KD, Slinde E (2002) Lactic acid fermentation of wheat and barley whole meal flours improves digestibility of nutrients and energy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets. Aquaculture 210:305–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Suzer C, Çoban D, Kamaci HO, Saka A, Firat K, Otgucuoðlu Ö, Küçüksari H (2008) Lactobacillus spp. bacteria as probiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larvae: effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture 280:140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tagg JR, Mc Given AR (1971) Assay system for bacteriocins. Appl Microbiol 21:943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Tavares-Dias M (2003) Variáveis hematológicas de teleósteos brasileiros de importância zootécnica. PhD dissertation—Centro de Aquicultura, Universidade Estadual Paulista—Jaboticabal, São Paulo, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  31. Tsai M, Yu H, Tzeng H, Leu J, Chou C, Huang C, Wang C, Lin J, Kou G, Lo C (2000) Identification and characterization of a shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) gene that encodes a novel chimeric polypeptide of cellular-type thymidine kinase and thymidylate kinase. Virology 277(1):100–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vieira FN, Pedrotti FS, Buglione CC, Mouriño JLP, Beltrame E, Martins ML, Ramires C, Vinatea LA (2007) Lactic-acid bacteria increase the survival of marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection with Vibrio harveyi. Brazilian J Oceanogr 55(4):251–255Google Scholar
  33. Vieira FN, Buglione CC, Mouriño JLP, Jatobá A, Ramíres C, Martins ML, Barracco MAAM, Vinatea LA (2008) Time-related action of Lactobacillus plantarum in the bacterial microbiota of shrimp digestive tract and its action as immunostimulation. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 43(6):763–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Y, Tian Z, Yao J, Li W (2008) Effect of probiotics, Enteroccus faecim, on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response. Aquaculture 277:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Welker TL, Lim C, Yildirim-Aksoy M, Klesius PH (2007) Growth, immune function, and disease and stress resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed graded levels of bovine lactoferrin. Aquaculture 262:156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adolfo Jatobá
    • 1
    • 2
  • Felipe do Nascimento Vieira
    • 1
  • Celso Carlos Buglione-Neto
    • 1
  • José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño’
    • 1
  • Bruno  Corrêa Silva
    • 1
  • Walter Quadros Seiftter
    • 1
  • Edemar Roberto Andreatta
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, Departamento de AquiculturaUniversidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)FlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Federal CatarinenseAraquariBrazil

Personalised recommendations