Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 993–1000 | Cite as

Organogenesis of exocrine pancreas in sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) larvae: characterization of trypsin expression

  • H. Okan Kamaci
  • Cüneyt Suzer
  • Deniz Çoban
  • Şahin Saka
  • Kürşat Firat


The ontogeny and differentiation stages of digestive systems related with trypsin expression in larvae of sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo, were investigated from hatching to 40 DAH (days after hatching), and total lengths and weights of larvae were determined. Histologic and enzymatic techniques were used to explain the functional development of the pancreas including trypsin activity. The pancreas was identified as a compact structure located in the region slightly posterior to the liver. At 3 DAH, first anus and then mouth opened. Incipient pancreas secretion polyhedral cells could be first observed as zymogen granules. During larval metamorphosis, the pancreas became diffuse, spreading throughout the mesentery in proximity to the stomach, the anterior intestine and the pyloric caeca. The specific activity of trypsin (42.54 ± 6.8 mU/mg protein−1) was found as early as after hatching at larvae size of 2.87 ± 0.34 mm at 0 DAH. Activity further increased until 10 DAH, especially after exogenous feeding. The highest trypsin activity was detected at 25 DAH as 119.26 ± 11.6 mU/mg protein−1. It is concluded that exocrine pancreas organogenesis is the main critical step in the development of digestive system that results in zymogen granules accumulation and increased trypsin activity.


Diplodus puntazzo Exocrine pancreas Histology Trypsin Ontogeny Growth 



The authors would like to express our sincere gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hakan POSTACI for the excellent cooperation for histological analysis and also the staff of the Teknomar Sea Fish Broodstock Centre where the experiments were conducted (Akuvatur Mediterranean Sea Foods, Izmir, TURKEY) for their most efficient technical assistance.


  1. Aktülün S, Suzer C, Kamacı HO, Çoban D, Saka Ş, Fırat K (2008) Activity of the digestive protease, chymotrypsin, in larvae of the cultured sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) larvae. The Israeli J Aquac Bamidgeh 60(2):82–88Google Scholar
  2. Boglione C, Giganti M, Selmo C, Cataudella S (2003) Morphoecology in larval fin fish: a new candidate species for aquaculture, Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae). Aquacult Int 11:17–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cahu CL, Zambonino Infante JL (2001) Substitution of live food by formulated diets in marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 200:161–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caruso G, Genovese L, Micale V, Spedicato MT, Mancuso M (2001) Preliminary investigation of the digestive enzymes in Pagellus erythrinus (Linneo 1758) larvae. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol 34:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen BN, Qin JG, Kumar SM, Hutchinson WG, Clarke SM (2006) Ontogenetic development of digestive enzymes in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi larvae. Aquaculture 260:264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guyot E, Dı’az JP, Connes R (1995) Organogenesis of the liver in sea bream Sparus aurata. J Fish Biol 47:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kolkovski S (2001) Digestive enzymes in fish larvae and juveniles-implications and application to formulated diets. Aquaculture 200:181–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Micale V, Garaffo M, Genovese L, Spedicato MT, Muglia U (2006) The ontogeny of the alimentary tract during larval development in common pandora Pagellus erythrinus, L. Aquaculture 251:354–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Micale V, Di Giancamillo A, Domeneghini C, Mylonas CC, Nomikos N, Papadakis IE, Muglia U (2008) Ontogeny of the digestive tract in sharpsnout sea bream Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti, 1777). Histol Histopathol 23:1077–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Moyano FJ, Diaz M, Alarcon FJ, Sarasquete MC (1996) Characterisation of digestive enzyme activity during larval development of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish Physiol Biochem 15:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nolting M, Ueberschär B, Rosenthal H (1999) Trypsin activity and physiological aspects in larval rearing of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using live prey and compound diets. J Appl Ichthyol 15:138–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Papandroulakis N, Kentouri M, Maingot E, Divanach P (2004) Mesocosm: a reliable technology for larval rearing of Diplodus puntazzo and Diplodus sargus sargus. Aquacult Int 12:345–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ribeiro L, Sarasquete C, Dinis MT (1999) Histological and histochemical development of the digestive system of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858) larvae. Aquaculture 171:293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Santamaria CA, Marin de Mateo M, Traveset R, Sala R, Grau A, Pastor E, Sarasquete C, Crespo S (2004) Larval organogenesis in common dentex Dentex dentex L. (Sparidae): histological and histochemical aspects. Aquaculture 237:207–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sarasquete C, Polo A, Yu’fera M (1995) Histology and histochemistry of the development of the digestive system of larval gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Aquaculture 130:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Suzer C, Fırat K, Saka Ş (2006) Ontogenic development of the digestive enzymes in common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus, L. larvae. Aquac Res 37:1565–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Suzer C, Aktülün S, Çoban D, Kamacı HO, Saka Ş, Fırat K, Alpbaz A (2007a) Digestive enzyme activities in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol 148A(2):470–477. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.06.418 Google Scholar
  19. Suzer C, Kamacı HO, Çoban D, Saka Ş, Fırat K, Ozkara B, Ozkara A (2007b) Digestive enzyme activity of the red porgy (Pagrus pagrus, L.) during larval development under culture conditions. Aquacult Res 38(16):1778–1785. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01841.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tseng HC, Grendell JH, Rothman SS (1982) Food, deodenal extracts, and enzyme secretion by the pancreas. Am J Physiol 243:G304–G312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Zambonino Infante JL, Cahu CL (2001) Ontogeny of the gastrointestinal tract of marine fish larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol 130C(3):477–487. doi: 10.1016/S1532-0456(01)00274-5 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Okan Kamaci
    • 1
  • Cüneyt Suzer
    • 1
  • Deniz Çoban
    • 2
  • Şahin Saka
    • 3
  • Kürşat Firat
    • 4
  1. 1.Aquaculture Department, Faculty of FisheriesEge UniversityBornova, IzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Faculty of AgricultureAdnan Menderes UniversityAydinTurkey
  3. 3.Bayindir Vocational SchoolEge UniversityBayindir, IzmirTurkey
  4. 4.Tire Kutsan Vocational SchoolEge UniversityTire, IzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations