Changes in free amino acid profile of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, eggs, and developing larvae
- 237 Downloads
The free amino acids (FAA) profile was determined for newly fertilized eggs and resultant larvae from wild-caught red snapper Lutjanus campechanus induced to spawn with hCG. Yolk sac and oil globule volumes of eggs and larvae were monitored over time from digital photographs. FAA profiles of the eggs and larvae were measured in picomoles (pmol) of FAA/mg of eggs by HPLC. Newly fertilized eggs had a mean total FAA content of 21.72 ± 3.55 nmoles/egg (92.81 ± 9.71 nmoles/mg eggs). Leucine, valine, lysine, and isoleucine were the most abundant essential FAA comprising 35.9% of the total FAA. Alanine, serine, asparagine, and glycine were the most abundant non-essential FAA comprising 34.2% of the total FAA. At 24 h post-hatch (hph) the mean total FAA had decreased by 81% since egg fertilization. The bulk of the FAA decrease was between the time of hatch and 12 hph. Only 8.5 ± 1.5% of the initial concentration in fertilized eggs of isoleucine, 9.7 ± 2.5% of arginine, and 9.9 ± 2.0% of threonine remained at 12 hph. Among the non-essential FAA, alanine dropped the most by 12 hph with 4.6% of the concentration found in a recently fertilized egg remaining, while cysteine had increased 254.7 ± 26.2%. The yolk sac volume decreased rapidly in the first 12 hph and was further reduced 77.0 ± 2.5% from 12 to 24 hph. The oil globule depletion rate was a more linear decline from fertilized egg to 36 hph.
KeywordsFree amino acids Red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus Marine fish eggs Marine fish larva Aquaculture
This study was funded by USDA Special Research Grant PO 2002-06152. The authors are grateful to the Alabama Marine Resources Division of the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources for the support and technical assistance during this study.
- Barrows FT, Hardy RW (2001) Nutrition and feeding. In: Wedemeyer G (ed) Fish hatchery management, 2nd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda MD 20814-2199, USAGoogle Scholar
- Division Waters of Millipore (1986) Pico tag amino acid analysis system operators manual. Manual number 88140. Milford, MA, pp 58–71Google Scholar
- Fyhn HJ, Govoni JJ (1995) Endogenous nutrient mobilization during egg and larval development in two marine fishes—Atlantic menhaden and spot. ICES marine science symposia, Copenhagen 1995Google Scholar
- Laidley CW, Shields R, Kaiwa M, Kobashigawa J, Molnar A (2003) Emerging marine finfish species under culture development at the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii. International sustainable marine fish culture conference abstracts. Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida, USA, 9–10 October 2003Google Scholar
- Matsubara T, Koya Y (1997) Course of proteolytic cleavage in three classes of yolk proteins during oocyte maturation in barfin flounder Verasper moseri, a marine teleost spawning pelagic eggs. J Exp Zool 278:189–200. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-010X(19970615)278:3<189::AID-JEZ8>3.0.CO;2-K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stipanuk MH, Watford M (2000) Amino acid metabolism. In: Stipanuk MH (ed) Biochemical and physiological aspects of human nutrition. W. B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 233–286Google Scholar
- Thorsen A, Fyhn HJ, Wallace RA (1993) Free amino acids as osmotic effectors for oocyte hydration in marine fishes. In: Walther BT, Fyhn HJ (eds) Physiology and biochemical aspects of fish development. University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, pp 94–98Google Scholar
- Watanabe WO, Benetti DD, Feeley MW, Davis DA, Phelps RP (2005) Status of artificial propagation of mutton, yellowtail, and red snapper (family Lutjanidae) in the southeastern United States. Am Fish Soc Symp 46:517–540Google Scholar
- Wilson RP, Poe WE (1985) Relationship of whole body and egg essential amino acid patterns to amino acid requirement patterns in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Comp Biochem Physiol 80B:385–388Google Scholar