Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 81–91 | Cite as

Lipid classes and fatty acids during embryogenesis of captive and wild silverside (Chirostoma estor estor) from Pátzcuaro Lake

  • Elena Palacios
  • Ilie S. Racotta
  • Benjamín Aparicio
  • Olivia Arjona
  • Carlos A. Martínez-Palacios
Original Paper


Lipid classes and fatty acid levels were analyzed in freshly fertilized eggs, early and late embryo development, and freshly hatched larvae obtained from wild and captive silverside Chirostoma estor estor broodstock, as well as in plankton, Artemia, and pelleted feed. The concentration of triglycerides (TGs) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) in neutral lipid fraction significantly decreased during early development and especially after hatching, whereas phospholipids and HUFA in polar lipid fraction remained constant. These results indicate that TGs rather than PLs are used as energy sources and that all HUFAs [20:4n-6/arachidonic acid (ARA), 20:5n-3/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and 22:6n-3/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] of polar lipids are selectively conserved during early development. High levels of DHA (30%, on average, of total fatty acids) and low levels of EPA (4%) were observed in eggs, embryos, and larvae and did not reflect the proportions of these fatty acids in food. Preferential accumulation of DHA from food consumed by broodstock, and then transference to eggs, was probably occurring. The main difference between eggs from both origins was a low level of ARA in eggs from captive fish (4% of total fatty acids) compared to wild fish (9%). This could be associated with a deficiency in the diet that is not compensated for by desaturation/elongation of 18:2n-6 and, possibly, with greater stress in captive fish. In any case, particular requirements of ARA should be determined to optimize the culture of C. estor.


ARA Broodstock nutrition DHA EPA Freshwater HUFA Ontogeny Phospholipids Triglycerides 



Arachidonic acid


Butylated hydroxytoluene




Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection


Docosahexaenoic acid


Eicosapentaenoic acid


Highly unsaturated fatty acids (carbon chain length > C20 with > 3 double bonds)




Monounsaturated fatty acids


Not detected


Not significantly different




Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Saturated fatty acids




Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization





The authors are grateful to the Lake Pátzcuaro fishermen, Lindsay Ross and an anonymous reviewer for critical comments, and technicians and students for their help during this work. This research was supported by grants FOMIX-CONACYT MICH-2003-C01-12002 and FOMIX-CONACYT, MICH-2003-C01-12314.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena Palacios
    • 1
  • Ilie S. Racotta
    • 1
  • Benjamín Aparicio
    • 1
  • Olivia Arjona
    • 1
  • Carlos A. Martínez-Palacios
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR)La PazMexico
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales (INIRENA)Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de HidalgoMoreliaMexico

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