Cellular responses to temperature stress in steelhead trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) parr with different rearing histories
- 220 Downloads
This study compared the heat-shock response and metabolic energy status in hatchery-raised and two groups of wild-caught steelhead trout parr collected from the Navarro River watershed, California. Wild parr were from coastal and inland sites with different thermal regimes. Fish were exposed in the laboratory to 25 ± 0.2°C for 2-h and the heat-shock response was assessed in muscle tissue via induction of heat-shock proteins (hsps) 63, 72, 78, and 89. Metabolic measurements included muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, ADP, and AMP, and hepatic glycogen. Inland and coastal fish overlapped considerably with regard to their hsp responses and energetic endpoints, but hatchery fish were distinct in the biochemical patterns they exhibited. Hsp expression levels after temperature shock were significantly lower in hatchery than in wild fish. Hatchery fish also had significantly lower hepatic glycogen and higher muscle ADP, ATP, and PCr concentrations than wild fish. Coastal and inland steelhead did not differ significantly with regard to peak hsp72 and hsp89 levels or to concentrations of energy metabolites. However, fish from the warm-water, inland site expressed significantly less hsp63, maintained higher basal levels of hsp72, and induced hsp89 more slowly than fish from the cold-water, coastal site. Discriminant function analysis revealed that hatchery fish can be distinguished from wild Navarro River fish with 84.9% certainty using the following function: f(x) = − 43.6 + 0.14(Gly) + 4.1(PCr) + 186.4(AMP) + 80.8(ADP) − 0.14(hsp63) + 0.005(hsp72). This study demonstrates that within a single species, rearing conditions or genetic variation can influence an organism’s disposition and cellular response to thermal stress. Extrapolation of results from laboratory studies on hatchery fish to wild fish may therefore not be possible, and caution must be used when interpreting hsp data obtained for wild fish with different thermal histories.
KeywordsSteelhead trout Heat-shock proteins Metabolic energy Glycogen Hatchery fish Temperature stress
This research was supported by funding from the California Department of Transportation (Contracts # 43A0014 and 43A0073) to M.L. Johnson. We are grateful to the Warm Springs Fish Hatchery, Geyserville, California, for a generous supply of steelhead parr, and to Gina Lee for conducting the protein analyses.
- Feige U, Morimoto RI, Yahara I, Polla BS (eds) (1996) Stress-inducible cellular responses. Birkhauser, BaselGoogle Scholar
- Hochachka PW, Somero GN (2002) Biochemical adaptation: mechanism and process in physiological evolution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Koban M, Graham G, Prosser C (1987) Induction of heat-shock protein synthesis in teleost hepatocytes—effects of acclimation temperature. Physiol Zool 60(2):290–296Google Scholar
- Moyle PB, Cech JJ Jr (2000) Fishes: an introduction to ichthyology, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Uppersaddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
- Roberts DA, Hofmann GE, Somero GN (1997) Heat-shock protein expression in Mytilus californianus: acclimatization (seasonal and tidal-height comparisons) and acclimation effects. Biol Bull 192:309–320Google Scholar
- Viant MR, Werner I, Rosenblum ES, Gantner AS, Tjeerdema RS, Johnson ML (2003) Correlation between stress protein induction and reduced metabolic condition in juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chronically exposed to elevated temperature. Fish Physiol Biochem 29:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Werner I, Koger CS, Hamm JT, Hinton DE (2001) Ontogeny of the heat shock protein, hsp70 and hsp60, response and developmental effects of heat shock in the teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ Sci 8(1):13–29Google Scholar
- Werner I, Linares-Casenave J, Van Eenennaam JP, Doroshov SI (2006) The effect of temperature stress on heat-shock protein expression and development in larval green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). Environ Biol Fish 10.1007/s10641-006-9070-zGoogle Scholar