Fire Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 1233–1248 | Cite as

The Breakage of Float Glass with Four-Edge Shading Under the Combined Effect of Wind Loading and Thermal Loading

  • Haodong Chen
  • Han Zhao
  • Yu Wang
  • Qingsong Wang
  • Jinhua Sun


The glass breakage in high-rise building fires may be significantly influenced by both the compartment fire and the environmental wind. In this work, float glass panes supported by the frame with a dimension of 600 × 600 × 6 mm3 were employed to study the glass breakage under the combination of wind and fire effects. The first breaking time, glass temperature, crack patterns, and fallout were obtained. With an increase of wind speed, the average value of temperature difference between the mean temperature at the heated exposed side and that at the ambient shaded side decreased gradually when crack initiated. The average time to first crack was maximum without wind loading and decreased gradually as the wind speed increased. Comparing with the glass breakage only under thermal radiation, the combination of environmental wind accelerated the glass breaking. The present results suggest that the wind effect should be considered for building fire protection in the window glass design.


Glass breakage Thermal radiation Environmental wind First breaking time 



Young’s modulus (GPa)


Wind pressure (N/m2)


Heat flux (kW/m2)


Radiative heat flux (kW/m2)


Temperature (°C)

\( \bar{T} \)

Mean temperature (°C)


Wind speed (m/s)

Greek letters


Coefficient of linear expansion of glass (K−1)


Density of air (kg/m3)


Thermal stress (MPa)



Point 1


Point 2


Ambient shaded side


Heated exposed side







This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51578524 and 51120165001). Dr. Q. S. Wang is supported by Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (Grant No. 2013286).


  1. 1.
    Emmons HW (1986) The needed fire science. In: Fire safety science—Proceedings of the First International Symposium, IAFSS, Berkeley, pp 33–53Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Keski-Rahkonen O (1988) Breaking of window glass close to fire. Fire Mater 12 (2):61–69. doi: 10.1002/fam.810120204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pagni PJ, Joshi AA (1991) Glass breaking in fires. In: Fire safety science—Proceedings of the Third International Symposium, IAFSS, Edinburgh, pp 791–802Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skelly MJ, Roby RJ, Beyler CL (1991) An experimental investigation of glass breakage in compartment fires. J Fire Protect Eng 3 (1):25–34. doi: 10.1177/104239159100300103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen H, Wang Q, Wang Y, Zhao H, Sun J, He L (2016) Experimental and numerical study of window glass breakage with varying shaded widths under thermal loading. Fire Technol 1–22. doi: 10.1007/s10694-016-0596-0
  6. 6.
    Harada K, Enomoto A, Uede K, Wakamatsu T (2000) An experimental study on glass cracking and fallout by radiant heat exposure. In: Fire safety science—Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium, University of Poitiers, IAFSS, Poitiers, pp 1063–1074. doi: 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.6-1063
  7. 7.
    Shields TJ, Silcock GWH, Flood MF (2001) Performance of a single glazing assembly exposed to enclosure corner fires of increasing severity. Fire Mater 25(4):123–152. doi: 10.1002/fam.764 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shields J, Silcock GWH, Flood F (2005) Behaviour of double glazing in corner fires. Fire Technol 41(1):37–65. doi: 10.1007/s10694-005-4629-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang Y, Wang Q, Shao G, Chen H, Sun J, He L, Liew KM (2014) Experimental study on critical breaking stress of float glass under elevated temperature. Mater Des 60:41–49. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2014.03.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shao G, Wang Q, Zhao H, Wang Y, Chen H, Su Y, Sun J, He L (2014) Maximum temperature to withstand water film for tempered glass exposed to fire. Constr Build Mater 57:15–23. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klassen MS, Sutula JA, Holton MM, Roby RJ (2010) Transmission through and breakage of single and multi-pane glazing due to radiant exposure: state of research. Fire Technol 46(4):821–832. doi: 10.1007/s10694-010-0150-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Charles RJ (1958) Static fatigue of glass I. J Appl Phys 29(11):1549–1553. doi: 10.1063/1.1722991 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown WG (1974) A practicable formulation for the strength of glass and its special application to large plates. National Research Council Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gavanski E, Kopp GA (2011) Glass breakage tests under fluctuating wind loads. J Archit Eng 17(1):34–41. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang Y (2011) Breakage behavior of float glass and low-E glass under thermal loading. Dissertation, University of Science and Technology of ChinaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yuse A, Sano M (1993) Transition between crack patterns in quenched glass plates. Nature 362 (6418):329–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haodong Chen
    • 1
  • Han Zhao
    • 1
  • Yu Wang
    • 1
  • Qingsong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jinhua Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Urban Public SafetyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations