Fire Technology

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 395–409 | Cite as

Wall Smoke Deposition from a Hot Smoke Layer

  • Siamak Riahi
  • Craig L. Beyler
  • JudithAnn Hartman


Smoke deposition from a hot smoke layer onto wall surfaces was studied in a hood apparatus using polymethylmethacrylate, polypropylene, and gasoline as fuels. Based upon prior analysis by Butler and Mulholland, the smoke deposition was expected to be dominated by thermophoresis. The deposited smoke samples were collected on glass filter paper attached to the hood wall and the mass per unit area of smoke deposited was measured gravimetrically. Measurements were made of quantities required for the prediction of thermophoretic smoke deposition. The smoke deposition measured in the experimental program was well predicted by the thermophoretic smoke deposition equation. The thermophoretic smoke deposition equation was found to be suitable for predicting smoke deposition onto wall surfaces exposed to fire environments.


Smoke Deposition Thermophoresis 


  1. 1.
    Butler K, Mulholland G (2004) Generation and transport of smoke components. Fire Technol 40(2): 149–176. doi: 10.1023/B:FIRE.0000016841.07530.64 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mulholland GW (2002) Smoke production and properties. The SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, pp. 258–268Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ciro W, Eddings E, Sarofim A (2006) Experimental and numerical investigation of transient soot buildup on a cylindrical container immersed in a jet fuel pool fire, Combust Sci Technol 178(12): 2199–2218. doi: 10.1080/00102200600626108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sippola MR, Nazaroff WW (2005) Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: connectors, bends and developing turbulent flow. Aerosol Sci Technol 39:139–150. doi: 10.1080/027868290908759 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guha A (1997) A unified Eulerian theory of turbulent deposition to smooth and rough surfaces. J Aerosol Sci 28:1517–1537. doi: 10.1016/S0021-8502(97)00028-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gottuk D, Mealy C, Floyd J (2009) Smoke transport and FDS validation. Fire Saf Sci 9: 129–140. doi: 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.9-129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamins A, Maranghides A, Johnsson EL, Donnelly MK, Yang JC, Mulholland GW, Anleitner RL (2005) Report of experimental results for the international fire model benchmarking and validation exercise #3. National Institute of Standards and Technology, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Floyd J (2010) Modeling soot deposition using large eddy simulation with a mixture fraction based framework, Interflam 2010. Interscience Communications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Riahi S, Beyler C (2011) Measurement and prediction of smoke deposition from a fire against a wall. Fire Saf Sci 10: 641–654. doi: 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.10-641 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riahi S (2010) New tools for smoke residue and deposition analysis. PhD Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Properties for the duraboard Fiberfrax from Accessed 24 may 2012
  12. 12.
    ASTM (2004) PTC. 19.5 Flow MeasurementGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Talbot L, Cheng R, Schefer R, Willis D (2006) Thermophoresis of particles in a heated boundary layer. J Fluid Mech 101(04): 737. doi: 10.1017/S0022112080001905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Waldmann L, Schmitt K (1966) Aerosol science. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brock J, (1962) On the theory of thermal forces acting on aerosol particles. J Colloid Sci 17(8): 768–780. doi: 10.1016/0095-8522(62)90051-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Friedlander S (2000) Smoke, dust, and haze: fundamentals of aerosol dynamics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mulholland GW, Croarkin C (2000) Specific extinction coefficient of flame generated smoke. Fire Mater 24:227–230. doi: 10.1002/1099-1018(200009/10)24:5<227::AID-FAM742>3.0.CO;2-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hartman JR, Beyler AP, Riahi S, Beyler CL (2011) Smoke oxidation kinetics for application to prediction of clean burn patterns. Fire Mater. doi: 10.1002/fam.1099 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (Outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siamak Riahi
    • 1
  • Craig L. Beyler
    • 2
  • JudithAnn Hartman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe George Washington University, Phillips HallWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Hughes AssociatesBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Chemistry DepartmentU.S. Naval AcademyAnnapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations