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Fire Technology

, 45:201 | Cite as

Scale Tests of Smoke Filling in Large Atria

  • J. A. Capote
  • D. Alvear
  • O. V. Abreu
  • M. Lázaro
  • P. Espina
Article

Abstract

The large Atriums of airports and railway stations facilitate the access to transport vehicles including shopping malls, cultural spaces, etc. For this reason, they are used by an elevated number of passengers and visitors. Numerous malls contain a large atrium too, as a principal access or as a food court, and they usually have high occupant loads. In case of fire, the smoke can affect human health seriously, and people may be unable to reach a safe place before being overcome by the conditions created by the fire. The traditional approach to fire protection by compartmentation is not applicable to these large volume spaces and the ability of sprinklers to suppress fire in spaces with high ceilings is limited. This work evaluated—using scale tests, fire computer modeling and analytical methods—a comparative analysis of the different results obtained for the smoke control in large atria when the smoke filling approach is applied. Smoke layer and plume temperatures have been registered during the scale test—based on the Froude Modeling—and they have been compared opposite to the FDS scale simulation and the FDS large scale simulation. Smoke layer descend has been studied and compared for the scale test, the computer simulations developed and the empirical equations used. The results demonstrated that the evacuation time calculation is conservative when the zone computer model CFAST, the field computer model FDS or the empirical equations are used, although it turns out to be difficult to define the interface height based on the temperatures registered during the scale tests. The zone computer models generate results faster than field computer models or smoke tests, so it would be necessary to develop better calculation algorithms to define the smoke layer interface.

Keywords

scale tests smoke filling atrium interface height fire computer simulations 

Nomenclature

Cp

Specific heat (kJ/kg K)

G

Acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

κ

1.1 (m/kW1/3 s)

l

Length (m)

lf

Length in the full-scale facility (m)

lm

Length in the model (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow (kg/s)

t

Time (s)

tcj

Transport time lag of plume (s)

tf

Time in the full-scale facility (s)

tg

Growth time (s)

tm

Time in the model (s)

tpl

Transport time lag of plume (s)

tt

Total transport lag time (s)

xf

Position in the full-scale facility (m)

xm

Position in the model (m)

z

Height of the first indication of smoke above the fire surface (m)

zint

Interface height (m)

z1

Mean flame height (m)

z0

Virtual origin height (m)

A

Cross-sectional area of the atrium (m2)

Af

Fire surface (m2)

Cef1

1.11

Cef2

0.937

Df

Fire diameter (m)

H

Ceiling height above the fire (m)

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat release rate (kW)

\( \dot{Q}_{C} \)

Convective heat release rate of fire (kW)

Qf

Heat release rate in the full-scale facility (kW)

Qm

Heat release rate in the model (kW)

Ta

Ambient temperature (K)

Tcp

Centerline plume temperature (K)

Tf

Temperature in the full-scale facility (K)

T1

Cold layer temperature (K)

Tm

Temperature in the model (K)

T0

Ambient temperature (K)

Tu

Hot layer temperature (K)

U

Velocity (m/s)

Uf

Velocity in the full-scale facility (m/s)

Um

Velocity in the model (m/s)

Vf

Volumetric flow in the full-scale facility (m3/s)

Vm

Volumetric flow in the model (m3/s)

∆Hc

Heat combustion (kJ/kg)

∆pf

Pressure difference in the full-scale facility (Pa)

∆pm

Pressure difference in the model (Pa)

η

−0.33 (m/kW1/3 s)

ρf

Density of the gas in the full-scale facility (kg/m3)

ρm

Density of the gas in the model (kg/m3)

ρ0

Outside air density (kg/m3)

χC

Convective fraction of heat release (dimensionless)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Housing of the Government of Spain, whose support made possible that this research project was developed (VIV/4123/2007, published BOE nº 32 on February 6th, 2008).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Capote
    • 1
  • D. Alvear
    • 1
  • O. V. Abreu
    • 1
  • M. Lázaro
    • 1
  • P. Espina
    • 1
  1. 1.GIDAI Group, Dpto. de Transportes y Tecnología de Proyectos y ProcesosUniversity of CantabriaSantanderSpain

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