Skip to main content

The effect of sideband ratio on line intensity for Herschel/HIFI

Abstract

The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory is composed of a set of fourteen double sideband mixers. We discuss the general problem of the sideband ratio (SBR) determination and the impact of an imbalanced sideband ratio on the line calibration in double sideband heterodyne receivers. The HIFI SBR is determined from a combination of data taken during pre-launch gas cell tests and in-flight. The results and some of the calibration artefacts discovered in the gas cell test data are presented here along with some examples of how these effects appear in science data taken in orbit.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Notes

  1. 1.

    In case of LO impurities, providing coupling to multiple frequencies, the heterodyne receiver can also be considered as a multi-sideband receiver where the normalized gains of all sidebands add up to unity

  2. 2.

    http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/pub/Public/HifiCalibrationWeb/

References

  1. 1.

    Comito, C., Schilke, P.: A&A 395, 357 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cherednichenko, S., Drakinskiy, V., Berg, T., Khosropanah, P., Kollberg, E.: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 034501 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    de Graauw, T., Helmich, F.P., Phillips, T.G., et al.: A&A 518, L6+ (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    de Lange, G., Jackson, B.D., Eggens, M., et al.: In: Walker, C., Payne, J. (eds.) 14th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, pp. 447–+ (2003)

  5. 5.

    Delforge, B., Pearson, J., Roelfsema, P., Verheijen,M., Jellema,W.: In: 24th International Symposium of Space Terahertz Technology. Groningen (2013)

  6. 6.

    Delorme, Y., Salez, M., Lecomte, B., et al.: In: 16th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, pp. 444–448 (2005)

  7. 7.

    Dieleman, P., Luinge,W.,Whyborn, N.D., et al.: In: 9th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, p. 106 (2008)

  8. 8.

    Griffin, M.J., Abergel, A., Abreu, A., et al.: A&A 518, L3+ (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Guan, X., Stutzki, J., Graf, U.U., et al.: A&A 542, L4 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Higgins, D.: PhD thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (2011)

  11. 11.

    Higgins, R.D., Kooi, J.W.: In: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7215 (2009)

  12. 12.

    Higgins, R.D., Teyssier, D., Pearson, J.C., Risacher, C., Trappe, N.A.: In: 21st International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, pp. 390–397 (2010)

  13. 13.

    Avruch, I., Beaulieu, S., Boogert, A., et al: The HIFI Data Reduction Guide, Technical report, ESAC (2013)

  14. 14.

    Kama, M., López-Sepulcre, A., Dominik, C., et al.: A&A 556, A57 (2013)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Karpov, A., Miller, D., Rice, F., et al.: IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 343 (2007)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kooi, J., Ossenkopf, V.: In: 20th International Symposium of Space Terahertz Technology, p. 69. Charlottesville (2009)

  17. 17.

    Lis, D., Phillips, T., Goldsmith, P., et al.: A&A 521 (2010)

  18. 18.

    Mangum, J.: ALMA Memo 434 (2002)

  19. 19.

    Mueller, M., Jellema, W., Delforge, B., et al.: Experimental astronomy, this volume (2013)

  20. 20.

    Ossenkopf, V.: ALMA Memo 442 (2003)

  21. 21.

    Pilbratt, G.L., Riedinger, J.R., Passvogel, T., et al.: A&A 518, L1+ (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Poglitsch, A., Waelkens, C., Geis, N., et al.: A&A 518, L2+ (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Roelfsema, P.R., Helmich, F.P., Teyssier, D., et al.: A&A 537, A17 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Siebertz, O., Honingh, C., Tils, T., et al.: In: 18th International Symposium of Space Terahertz Technology, California Institute of Technology, pp. 117–122. Pasadena (2007)

  25. 25.

    Teipen, R., Justen,M., Tils, T., et al.: In: 6th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, pp. 199–204 (2005)

  26. 26.

    Teyssier, D., Dartois, E., Deboffle, D., et al.: In: 15th International Symposium of Space Terahertz Technology, pp. 306–312. Northampton (2004)

  27. 27.

    Teyssier, D., Whyborn, N.D., Luinge, W., et al.: In: Wild, W. (ed.) 9th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, p. 132–+ (2008)

  28. 28.

    Teyssier, D., Higgins, R. Technical note: Sideband Ratio correction for HIFI data, HIFI calibration wiki page. https://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/pub/Public/HifiCalibrationWeb/HIF_SBR_CookbookV_1.0.pdf (2013)

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Mihkel Kama from the CHESS team for his help in investigating the sideband ratio effect around the 557 GHz water line. Ronan Higgins would like to thank Netty Honingh for useful discussions on the origins of the sideband ratio imbalance in bands 1 and 2. The authors are grateful to the anonymous referee for valuable comments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ronan Higgins.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Higgins, R., Teyssier, D., Borys, C. et al. The effect of sideband ratio on line intensity for Herschel/HIFI. Exp Astron 37, 433–452 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-014-9382-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • HIFI
  • Herschel
  • Heterodyne
  • Calibration
  • Sideband ratio