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Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 631–660 | Cite as

The Herschel PACS photometer calibration

A time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode
  • Markus NielbockEmail author
  • Thomas Müller
  • Ulrich Klaas
  • Bruno Altieri
  • Zoltán Balog
  • Nicolas Billot
  • Hendrik Linz
  • Koryo Okumura
  • Miguel Sánchez-Portal
  • Marc Sauvage
Original Article

Abstract

We present a flux calibration scheme for the PACS chopped point-source photometry observing mode based on the photometry of five stellar standard sources. This mode was used for science observations only early in the mission. Later, it was only used for pointing and flux calibration measurements. Its calibration turns this type of observation into fully validated data products in the Herschel Science Archive. Systematic differences in calibration with regard to the principal photometer observation mode, the scan map, are derived and amount to 5 − 6 %. An empirical method to calibrate out an apparent response drift during the first 300 Operational Days is presented. The relative photometric calibration accuracy (repeatability) is as good as 1 % in the blue and green band and up to 5 % in the red band. Like for the scan map mode, inconsistencies among the stellar calibration models become visible and amount to 2 % for the five standard stars used. The absolute calibration accuracy is therefore mainly limited by the model uncertainty, which is 5 % for all three bands.

Keywords

Herschel Space Observatory PACS Far-infrared Instrumentation Calibration Chopping 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the anonymous referee for the constructive report on the submitted manuscript. We also would like to thank J. Blommaert (KUL) for providing helpful comments. Z. Balog, H. Linz and M. Nielbock are funded by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Nielbock
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thomas Müller
    • 4
  • Ulrich Klaas
    • 1
  • Bruno Altieri
    • 2
  • Zoltán Balog
    • 1
  • Nicolas Billot
    • 3
  • Hendrik Linz
    • 1
  • Koryo Okumura
    • 5
  • Miguel Sánchez-Portal
    • 2
  • Marc Sauvage
    • 5
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für AstronomieHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESAMadridSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Radio Astronomía MilimétricaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany
  5. 5.Laboratoire AIM, CEA, Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’AstrophysiqueGif-sur-YvetteFrance

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