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Table 1 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) across all environments or separated by the site in South Africa (Alma) and the two Swiss sites (Avenches and Delley) and heritability estimations (h2) under high or low N conditions

From: Shovelomics root traits assessed on the EURoot maize panel are highly heritable across environments but show low genotype-by-nitrogen interaction

Factor Df mW mFD area AcH Ff depth tpSL mSW mGS NoG shoot SPAD
(a) All environments
Envir 5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Treat 1 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Genotype 36 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Genotype: Envir 171 *   *** *** ** *** *** *   *** ***  
Genotype: Treat 35 **   *          
Envir: Treat 4 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
h2 low N   0.77 0.59 0.7 0.49 0.71 0.32 0.6 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.66 0.72
h2 high N   0.8 0.31 0.65 0.61 0.74 0.44 0.61 0.51 0.45 0.66 0.75 0.69
Factor Df Vigor Lodging Staygreen Silage % DM
(b) Switzerland       
Envir 3 *** *** *** *** ***
Treat 1 *** *** *** *** ***
Genotype 35 *** *** *** *** ***
Genotype: Envir 104 *** *** *** *** ***
Genotype: Treat 35    * ***  
Envir: Treat 2 *** ** *** *** ***
h2 low N   0.67 0.55 0.77 0.76 0.94
h2 high N   0.7 0.52 0.78 0.85 0.94
Factor Df Kernel Height
(c) Alma
Envir 1   ***
Treat 1 *** ***
Genotype 36   ***
Genotype: Envir 32   
Genotype: Treat 35   **
Envir: Treat 1 *** ***
h2 low N   0.42 0.56
h2 high N   0.22 0.69
  1. Envir Environment (site + year), Treat N treatment, Df degrees of freedom, mW maximal width, mFD median fractal dimension, area: area of root derived pixels within convex hull, AcH area of convex hull, Ff fill factor, depth 95% quantile depth, tpSL total projected structure length, mSW medium structure width, mGS median gapz size, NoG number of gaps, shoot: shoot fresh weight, SPAD leaf greenness, silage: silage yield, % DM percent dry matter, kernel kernel yield, height: plant height
  2. Significance level p ≤ 0.001***; p ≤ 0.01**; p ≤ 0.05*