, 214:97 | Cite as

Analysis and fine mapping of a gene controlling the folded-leaf phenotype of a mutant tomato line

  • Xiaomei Su
  • Wencai Yang
  • Zejun Huang
  • Xiaoxuan Wang
  • Yanmei Guo
  • Yongchen Du
  • Jianchang Gao


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most popular cultivated vegetables worldwide. Tomato leaves are determinate organs with important functions affecting plant growth and development. In addition to the other leaf phenotypes, folded leaves have recently been observed in several tomato varieties. In the present study, an F2 population was generated from a cross between tomato inbred lines 14g-677 (i.e., folded leaves) and 14g-683 (i.e., wild-type leaves). A genetic analysis of the folded-leaf trait in 199 F2 individuals revealed this leaf phenotype is controlled by a single recessive gene, which was designated as fl. This gene was initially localized to chromosome 11 based on insertion/deletion (InDel) markers and a bulked segregant analysis (BSA). According to a genetic map consisting of new markers and recombinants, the fl gene was mapped between the SNP-1 and dcaps-10 markers at the distal end of the long arm of tomato chromosome 11. The physical distance between the two markers was approximately 62.2 kb. The annotation and functional characterization of the genes in this region indicated fl may be ARF4, which encodes an auxin response factor. A sequence analysis revealed that the ARF4 of line 14g-677 is missing a single C in the third exon region. Furthermore, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected an approximate fourfold difference in ARF4 transcript abundance between lines 14g-677 and 14g-683. Thus, a mutation to ARF4 is likely responsible for the folded-leaf phenotype of tomato mutants.


Tomato Folded leaf Fine mapping ARF4 Mutant 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31471874), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0101703), and the Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crops Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China.

Supplementary material

10681_2018_2148_MOESM1_ESM.tif (4.4 mb)
Fig. S1 Agarose gel electrophoresis separation of PCR fragments amplified from 14 tomato lines using the dCAPS marker. a = homozygous like the 14g-677 mutant parent, b = homozygous like the 14g-683 wild parent, F = folded leaf, N = normal leaf. Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 4545 kb)
10681_2018_2148_MOESM2_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Table S1 Details regarding the molecular markers used for mapping the fl locus in tomato. Note: a construct a genetic map, b construct a genetic map of the target region, c analyze recombinants. Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 19 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Vegetables and FlowersChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Vegetable Science, College of HorticultureChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

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