Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 211, Issue 1, pp 59–70 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and virulence variation of Sporisorium destruens isolates and evaluation of broomcorn millet for resistance to head smut

  • Yu Zhou
  • Yang Qu
  • Mingqi Zhu
  • Jiajia Liu
  • Yang Wang
  • Hui Song
  • Baili Feng
Article

Abstract

Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the most important minor grain crops in China. Head smut caused by Sporisorium destruens is a serious threat to broomcorn millet production. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and virulence variation of S. destruens in China. To address this, a total of 51 S. destruens isolates were collected from broomcorn millet growing areas in China and characterized in genetic diversity with RAPD markers and 16 isolates representing different geographic origins and genotypes were tested in virulence. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram showed that the 51 isolates were divided into three lineages at an average similarity of 0.7022. There was no significant correlation between genotypes and geographic origins of the isolates. To determine the virulence variation of S. destruens isolates, a three-year resistance evaluation for 280 accessions was conducted and the results showed that the numbers of immune, highly resistant, resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible accessions were 8, 7, 108, 152 and 5, respectively. Ten accessions were selected as potential differential hosts. In virulence test, the 16 isolates tested were separated into three pathotypes and implied a virulence differentiation. This study demonstrated that S. destruens isolates had a moderate genetic diversity and a certain degree of virulence variation. Eight accessions were identified to be immune to S. destruens which were not previously discovered in China. The paper will provide a basis of knowledge for resistance breeding to broomcorn millet head smut.

Keywords

Sporisorium destruens Genetic diversity Broomcorn millet accessions Resistance evaluation Virulence variation 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the National Millet Crops Research and Development System (CARS-07-12.5-A9), the National Science and Technology Supporting Plan (2014BAD07B03) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371529). The experiments complied with the current laws of China.

Complaince with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10681_2016_1723_MOESM1_ESM.tif (290 kb)
ESM_1 Phylogentic tree of S. destruens and related species of Ustilaginaceae based on sequences of ITS region. Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 290 kb)

References

  1. Anderson JA, Churchill JE, Autrique SD, Tanksley S, Sorrells ME (1993) Optimizing parental selection for genetic linkage maps. Genome 36:181–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakkeren G, Kronstad JW (1994) Linkage of mating-type loci distinguishes bipolar from tetrapolar mating in basidiomycetous smut fungi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:7085–7089CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Beigi S, Zamanizadeh HR, Razavi M, Zare R (2013) Genetic diversity of Iranian isolates of barley scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) making use of molecular markers. J Agr Sci Tech 15:843–854Google Scholar
  4. Bernardo MA, Naqvi N, Leung H, Zeigler RS, Nelson RJ (1993) Rapid method for DNA fingerprint of the rice blast fungus Pyricularia grisea. Inter Rice Res Notes 18:48–50Google Scholar
  5. Cao LH, Kang ZS, Wei GR (2004) Studies on methods for gDNA extraction and RAPD analysis of wheat stripe rust. J Northwest Sci-Tech Univ of Agri and For (Nat Sci) 32:33–36 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  6. Chen XM, Line RF, Leung H (1993) Relationship between virulence variation and DNA polymorphism in Puccinia striiformis. Phytopathology 83:1489–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Datta J, Lal N (2013) Genetic variability assessment of Fusarium wilt pathogen races affecting chickpea using molecular markers. J Microbiol Biotechnol Food Sci 2:2392–2397Google Scholar
  8. Faris JA (1924) Physiological specialization of Ustilago hordei. Phytopathology 14:537–557Google Scholar
  9. Frederiksen RA, Reyes L (1980) The head smut program at Texas A & M. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sorghum Diseases, Hyderabad, India, 11–15 December 1978, pp 367–373Google Scholar
  10. Frowd JA (1980) A world review of sorghum smuts. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sorghum Diseases, Hyderabad, India, 11–15 December 1978, pp 331–348Google Scholar
  11. Gao H, Wang XG, Guo QG, Li SZ, Lu XY, Ma P (2014) Phylogenetic and pathogenic analyses of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum isolates in Hebei Province by AFLP technique. Acta Phytophys Sin 41(3):311–319 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  12. He ZD, Chen J, Gao ZG, Zhuang JH, Gao YF (2007) Study on genetic diversity of Sporisorium reilianum. J Maize Sci 15:133–136 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  13. Herrera JA, Vallejo AB (1986) Distribution of races of head smut (Sporisorium reilianum) in the northeast and southwest areas of Mexico. Sorghum Newslett 29Google Scholar
  14. Jamaux-Despréaux I, Péros J (2003) Genetic structure in populations of the fungus Fomitiporia punctata associated with the esca syndrome in grapevine. Vitis 42(1):43–51Google Scholar
  15. Jiang Y, Xu XD, Liu ZH, Dong HY, Zhao SH (2007) Genetic diversity of Sporisorium reilianum of maize. J Shenyang Agric Univ 38:522–526 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  16. Kovacs J, Koppanyi M, Nemeth N, Petroczi I (1997) Occurrence and prevention of head smut caused by Sporisorium destruens (Schlechtend) K. Vanky in millet. Novenytermeles 46:373–381Google Scholar
  17. Lamine M, Mliki A (2015) Elucidating genetic diversity among sour orange rootstocks: a comparative study of the efficiency of RAPD and SSR markers. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 175:2996–3013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu TR (1984) The conceptions of smut fungi and smut disease I. In: Liu TR (ed) smut fungi and smut disease. Agriculture Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma JT, Wang DX, Gong XJ, Gao J (2008) Analysis on genetic diversity of Sporisorium reilianum from 6 provinces and regions in China. J Maize Sci 16:139–143 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  20. Mantel N (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res 27:209–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Osaki K, Fujiyama S, Nakayama A, Shimizu Y, Ito SI, Tanaka S (2008) Relation between pathogenicity and genetic variation within Plasmodiophora brassicae. J Gen Plant Pathol 74:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pecina V, de Jesus Alvarado M, Alanis HW, de la Torre Almaraz R, Vandemark GJ (2000) Detection of double-stranded RNA in Macrophomina phaseolina. Mycologia 92:900–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Prom LK, Perumal R, Erattaimuthu SR, Erpelding JE, Montes N, Odvody GN, Greenwald C, Jin ZY, Frederiksen R, Magill CW (2011) Virulence and molecular genotyping studies of Sporisorium reilianum isolates in sorghum. Plant Dis 95:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Que Y, Xu L, Lin J, Chen R, Grisham MP (2012) Molecular variation of Sporisorium scitamineum in Mainland China revealed by RAPD and SRAP markers. Plant Dis 96(10):1519–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rohlf FJ (2000) NTSYS-pc. Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 2.1. Exeter Publishing, SetaukeGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharma P, Deep S, Sharma M, Bhati DS (2013) Genetic variation of Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., causal agent of dark leaf spot of cauliflower and mustard in India. J Gen Plant Pathol 79:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stromberg EL, Stienstra WC, Kommedahl T, Matyac CA, Windels CE, Geadelmann JL (1984) Smut expression and resistance of corn to Sphacelotheca reiliana in Minnesota. Plant Dis 68:880–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Suzuki T, Tanaka-Miwa C, Ebihara Y, Ito Y, Uematsu S (2010) Genetic polymorphism and virulence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne). J Gen Plant Pathol 76:247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tapke VF (1937) Physiologic races of Ustilago hordei. J Agric Res 55:683–692Google Scholar
  30. Valverde ME, Vandemark GJ, Martínez O, Paredes-López O (2000) Genetic diversity of Ustilago maydis strains. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang XY (1990) The resistance of broomcorn millet germplasms on head smut. In: Wang XY, Shi YL, Liu WH, Ren JH (eds) Broomcorn millet germplasm collection in China. Agriculture Press, Beijing, p 172Google Scholar
  32. Wang XY, Wang L, Wen QF (2004) Identification of broomcorn millet varieties resource for resistance to smut in China. J Shihezi Univ (Nat Sci) 22:43–45 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  33. Wang L, Wang XY, Wen QF, Zhao WH, Liu JY (2008) Identification and evaluation of resistance to dustbrand in Chinese proso millet germplasm resources (in Chinese with English abstract). J Plant Genet Resour 9:497–501Google Scholar
  34. Xu XD, Dong HY, Jiang Y, Bai JK (2003) Analysis of genetic relationships among Sporisorium Reilianum isolates by RAPD. Mycosystema 22:56–61 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  35. Yadav B, Singh R, Kumar A (2013) Genetic variability and relationship analysis of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates causing spot blotch disease in wheat using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Afr J Biotechnol 12:2526–2531Google Scholar
  36. Yin ZX, Zhu HQ, Li ZF, Feng ZL (2011) Genetic diversity of Verticillium dahliae populations of cotton in china based on SSR analysis. Cott Sci 23(4):369–378 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  37. Zhang XF, Gao ZG, Zhuang JH, Zhao H, Zhao BX, Sui H (2010) Genetic diversity of Sporisorium reilianum by UP-PCR, ISSR and AFLP analysis. Acta Phytophys Sin 37:241–248 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  38. Zhang F, Ping J, Du Z, Cheng Q, Huang Y (2011) Identification of a new race of Sporisorium reilianum and characterization of the reaction of sorghum lines to four races of the head smut pathogen. J Phytopathol 159:342–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhou YL, Pan YJ, Xie XW, Zhu LH, Xu JL, Wang S, Li ZK (2008) Genetic diversity of rice false smut fungus, Ustilaginoidea virens and its pronounced differentiation of populations in North China. J Phytopathol 156:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Zhou
    • 1
  • Yang Qu
    • 2
  • Mingqi Zhu
    • 3
  • Jiajia Liu
    • 1
  • Yang Wang
    • 3
  • Hui Song
    • 4
  • Baili Feng
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of AgronomyNorthwest A & F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.Baoji Institute of Agriculture ScienceQishanChina
  3. 3.College of Plant ProtectionNorthwest A & F UniversityYanglingChina
  4. 4.Anyang Institute of Agriculture ScienceAnyangChina

Personalised recommendations