Functional analysis of the lodging resistance QTL BSUC11 on morphological and chemical characteristics in upper culms of rice
Culm strength deterioration from grain filling to the fully ripe stage is one of the main causes of rice lodging. The quantitative trait locus for resistance to bending-type lodging, BSUC11, prevents upper culms from deteriorating their physical strength. The physical strength of culms is determined by morphological traits and chemical components. To clarify key factors preventing strength deterioration of culms after grain filling, this study conducted functional analyses on morphological traits and chemical components of upper culms using chromosomal segment substitution lines (CSSLs) containing BSUC11. Dry weights of upper culms in CSSLs with BSUC11 were heavier than those of ‘Koshihikari’ from 4 to 6 weeks after heading. For morphological traits at the fully ripe stage, CSSLs with BSUC11 only showed a thickening of cortical fiber tissues in internode I, and did not have greater diameter or wall thicknesses of upper culms. Additionally, the upper culms of CSSLs with BSUC11 increased holocellulose content instead of lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, or minerals compared with ‘Koshihikari’. These results suggest that culm strength deterioration after grain filling is contributed to by holocellulose content rather than morphological traits in rice culms, and BSUC11 could improve lodging resistance through prevention of this deterioration factor.
KeywordsLodging resistance Breaking strength Structural carbohydrate Holocellulose Rice
This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B, 15K18632).
- Atkins IM (1938) Relation of certain plant characters to strength of straw and lodging in winter wheat. J Agric Res 56:99–120Google Scholar
- Bergmeyer HU, Bernt E (1974) Methods for determination of metabolites: carbohydrate metabolism: sucrose. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 1176–1179Google Scholar
- Ebitani T, Takeuchi Y, Nonoue Y, Yamamoto T, Takeuchi K, Yano M (2005) Construction and evaluation of chromosome segment substitution lines carrying overlapping chromosome segment of indica rice cultivar “Kasalath” in a genetic background of japonica elite cultivar “Koshihikari”. Breed Sci 55:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kono M, Takahashi J (1964) Study on the mechanical properties of paddy culm with reference to lodging. Soil Sci Plant Nut 10:239–249Google Scholar
- Ookawa T, Hobo T, Yano M, Murata K, Ando T, Miura H, Asano K, Ochiai Y, Ikeda M, Nishitani R, Ebitani T, Ozaki H, Angeles ER, Hirasawa T, Matsuoka M (2010) New approach for rice improvement using a pleiotropic QTL gene for lodging resistance and yield. Nat Commun 1:132CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ookawa T, Inoue K, Mtsuoka M, Ebitani T, Takarada T, Yamamoto T, Ueda T, Yokoyama T, Sugiyama C, Nakaba S, Funada R, Kato H, Kanekatsu M, Toyota K, Motobayashi T, Vazirzanjani M, Toji S, Hirasawa T (2014) Increased lodging resistance in long-culm, low-lignin gh2 rice for improved feed and bioenergy production. Sci Rep 4:6567CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wise LE, Murphy M, D’Addieco AA (1946) Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and bearing on summative wood analysis and studies on the hemicelluloses. Paper Trade J 122:35–43Google Scholar
- Yano K, Ookawa T, Aya K, Ochiai Y, Hirasawa T, Ebitani T, Takarada T, Yano M, Yamamoto T, Fukuoka S, Wu J, Ando T, Ordonio RL, Hirano K, Matsuoka M (2015) Isolation of a novel lodging resistance QTL gene involved in strigolactone signaling and its pyramiding with a QTL gene involved in another mechanism. Mol Plant 8:303–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar