, Volume 210, Issue 3, pp 405–411 | Cite as

Identification of rust resistance in groundnut using a validated SSR marker

  • Engin Yol
  • Hari D. Upadhyaya
  • Bulent Uzun


Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop cultivated in over 100 countries in the world. The rust disease of groundnut, caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg., can cause significant yield losses in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease affects not only seed yield but also fodder yield and quality. There are chemicals available to control rust; however, the development of resistant varieties is the most reasonable way to improve yield and quality, and to reduce the adverse effects of chemicals on the ecosystem. Characterization of germplasm diversity to identify resistant sources using traditional methods is a lengthy process and requires laborious field testing. Molecular marker-aided selection offers an alternative breeding method that is relatively easy, precise, and not affected by environmental fluctuation. In the present study, a validated SSR marker, GM1954, linked to the rust disease resistance gene was used for 256 groundnut genotypes to select rust resistance. This study reports the successful application of marker-assisted selection for further rust-resistant breeding programs in groundnut. Molecular analyses revealed that the banding pattern related to disease resistance was observed at high frequency in the variety hypogaea among the nine identified resistant genotypes in the collection. Approximately 3 % of the collection was selected for further field, greenhouse, and hybridization experiments.


Characterization Fungal disease Marker-aided selection Molecular markers Puccinia arachidis Speg. 



This study was supported by the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology of Turkey and the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Akdeniz University (grants SANTEZ- 01527-STZ-2012-2 and FDK-2014-140, respectively). We are grateful to International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Gene bank, Hyderabad, India for supplying genetic material several times. We appreciate Allan Booth of The James Hutton Institute, Dundee, UK for his critical editing of the manuscript.


  1. Bromfield K, Bailey W (1972) Inheritance of resistance to Puccinia arachidis in peanut. Phytopathology 62:748Google Scholar
  2. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1990) A rapid total DNA preparation procedure for fresh plant tissue. Focus 12:13–15Google Scholar
  3. Gajjar KN, Mishra PM, Radhakrishnan T, Dodia SM, Rathnakumar AL, Kumar N, Kumar S, Jentilal RD, Kumar A (2014) Validation of SSR markers linked to the rust and late leaf spot diseases resistance in diverse peanut genotypes. Aust J Crop Sci 8:927–936Google Scholar
  4. Gregory W, Krapovickas A, Gregory M (1980) Structure, variation, evolution, and classification in Arachis. In: Summerfield R, Bunting A (eds) Advances in legume science. Royal Botanic Gardens, London, pp 469–481Google Scholar
  5. Khedikar Y, Gowda MVC, Sarvamangala C, Patgar K, Upadhyaya H, Varshney R (2010) A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Theor Appl Genet 121:971–984CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Krapovickas A, Gregory WC (1994) Taxonomia del género Arachis (Leguminosae). Bonplandia 8:1–186Google Scholar
  7. Leal-Bertioli SCM, José ACVF, Alves-Freitas DMT, Moretzsohn MC, Guimarães PM, Nielen S, Vidigal BS, Pereira RW, Pike J, Fávero AP, Parniske M, Varshney RK, Bertioli DJ (2009) Identification of candidate genome regions controlling disease resistance in Arachis. BMC Plant Biol 9:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liao BS (2003) The groundnut. Hubei Press for Science and Technology, Wuhan, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  9. Mehan VK, Reddy PM, Rao VK, McDonald D (1994) Components of rust resistance in peanut genotypes. Phytopathology 84:1421–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Middleton K, Shorter R (1987) Occurrence and management of groundnut rust in Australia. In: Groundnut Rust Disease: Proc Discuss Group Meet. 24–28 September 1984, ICRISAT, Patancheru. pp 73–75Google Scholar
  11. Mondal S, Badigannavar AM (2015) Peanut rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.) disease: its background and recent accomplishments towards disease resistance breeding. Protoplasma 252:1409–1420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Mondal S, Badigannavar AM, Murty GSS (2007) RAPD markers linked to a rust resistance gene in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Euphytica 159:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mondal S, Badigannavar AM, D’Souza SF (2012) Molecular tagging of a rust resistance gene in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) introgressed from Arachis cardenasii. Mol Breed 29:467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mondal S, Hande P, Badigannavar AM (2014) Identification of transposable element markers for a rust (Puccinia arachidis speg.) resistance gene in cultivated peanut. J Phytopathol 162:548–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nagy E, Chu Y, Guo Y, Khanal S, Tang S, Li Y, Dong WB, Timper P, Taylor C, Ozias-Akins P, Holbrook CC, Beilinson V, Nielsen NC, Stalker HT, Knapp SJ (2010) Recombination is suppressed in an alien introgression in peanut harboring Rma, a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene. Mol Breed 26:357–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Singh AK, Mehan VK, Nigam SN (1997) Sources of resistance to groundnut fungi and bacterial diseases: an update and appraisal, Information Bulletin 50. International Crops Research Institute for the Semiarid Tropics, PatancheruGoogle Scholar
  17. Subrahmanyam P, Reddy LJ, Gibbons RW, Mcdonald D (1985) Peanut rust: a major threat to peanut production in the semiarid tropics. Plant Dis 69:813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Subrahmanyam P, Rao VR, Mcdonald D, Moss JP, Gibbons RW (1989) Origins of resistance to rust and late leaf spot in peanut (Arachis hypogaea Fabaceae). Econ Bot 43:444–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Subrahmanyam D, McDonald D, Reddy LJ, Nigam SN, Smith DH (1993) Origin and utilization of rust resistance. In: Jacobs T, Parlevliet JE (eds) Durability of disease resistance. Springer, Wageningen, pp 147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Subrahmanyam P, McDonald D, Waliyar F, Reddy LJ, Nigam SN, Gibbons RW, Ramanatha Rao V, Singh AK, Pande S, Reddy PM, Subba Rao PV (1995) Screening methods and sources of resistance to rust and late leaf spot of groundnut. Information Bulletin no. 47. ICRISAT, Patancheru. pp 1–20Google Scholar
  21. Sudini H, Upadhyaya HD, Reddy SV, Mangala UN, Rathore A, Kumar KVK (2015) Resistance to late leaf spot and rust diseases in ICRISAT’s mini core collection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Australas Plant Path 44:557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sujay V, Gowda MVC, Pandey MK, Bhat RS, Khedikar YP, Nadaf HL, Gautami B, Sarvamangala C, Lingaraju S, Radhakrishan T, Knapp SJ, Varshney RK (2012) Quantitative trait locus analysis and construction of consensus genetic map for foliar disease resistance based on two recombinant inbred line populations in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Mol Breed 30:773–788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sukruth M, Paratwagh SA, Sujay V, Kumari V, Gowda MVC, Nadaf HL, Motagi BN, Lingaraju S, Pandey MK, Varshney RK, Bhat RS (2015) Validation of markers linked to late leaf spot and rust resistance, and selection of superior genotypes among diverse recombinant inbred lines and backcross lines in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Euphytica 204:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Upadhyaya HD, Bramel PJ, Ortiz R, Singh S (2002) Developing a mini core of peanut for utilization of genetic resources. Crop Sci 42:2150–2156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Varman PV, Ravendran TS, Ganapathy T (1991) Genetic analysis of rust resistance in groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. J Oilseed Res 8:35–39Google Scholar
  26. Varshney RK, Pandey MK, Pasupuleti J, Nigam SN, Sudini H, Gowda MVC, Sriswathi M, Radhakrishan T, Manohar SS, Patne N (2014) Marker-assisted introgression of a QTL region to improve rust resistance in three elite and popular varieties of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Theor Appl Genet 127:1771–1781CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Waliyar F (1991) Evaluation of yield losses due to groundnut leaf diseases in West Africa. Summary Proceedings of the second ICRISAT regional groundnut meeting for West Africa, 11–14 September 1990. ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, Niamey, Niger. ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) Patancheru, pp 32–33Google Scholar
  28. Yeri SB, Shirasawa K, Pandey MK, Gowda MVC, Sujay V, Shriswathi M, Nadaf HL, Motagi BN, Lingaraju S, Bhat ARS, Varshney RK, Krishnaraj PU, Bhat RS (2014) Development of NILs from heterogeneous inbred families for validating the rust resistance QTLs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Plant Breed 133:80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yol E, Upadhyaya HD, Uzun B (2015) Molecular diagnosis to identify new sources of resistance to sclerotinia blight in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Euphytica 203:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Field Crops, Faculty of AgricultureAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)PatancheruIndia

Personalised recommendations