Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 205, Issue 3, pp 915–925 | Cite as

Heterosis and genetic analysis of branching in cut-flower chrysanthemums

  • Yunyang Yang
  • Chao Wen
  • Nan Ma
  • Liangjun Zhao
Article

Abstract

The single-head cut-flower chrysanthemum is one of the most important and popular varieties of Chinese export cut flowers, but the less collateral varieties are very rare in the market. To produce new, high-quality varieties, we generated two hybrid combinations from the varieties Fukashi (SZ), Jinba (SM), and FengWofen (FW; “SM × SZ” and “SZ × FW”, respectively). A detailed analysis of morphological tests revealed the heredity and variation in the F1 populations. Hybrid plant height showed significant negative heterosis. Flower diameter and the number of small flowers were both diminished, but the ornamental traits of the population overall showed wide variation. The results provided a basis of genetic differences for subsequent analysis. In both crosses, Fukashi played an important regulatory role in determining branching traits in the middle zone and basal zone of the progeny plants: it reduced hybrid branching traits in the middle zone to a certain extent, however, it increased those in the basal zone and there were some transgressive progeny. These results indicate that hybridization is an effective way to contribute to the phenotypic variation of cut-flower chrysanthemums. The inheritance of branching traits identified in this study will be important in improving the plant architecture of chrysanthemum cultivars.

Keywords

Branches Cut-flower chrysanthemums Genetic analysis Heterosis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the 863 project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (2011AA100208), and the National 948 Key Project of Ministry of Agriculture (Grant No. 2011-G17).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Beveridge CA (2006) Axillary bud outgrowth: sending a message. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:35–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen XL, Zhou XY, Xi L, Li JX, Zhao RY, Ma N, Zhao LJ (2013) Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema × grandiflora cv. Jinba). PLoS ONE 8(4):e61717PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng X, Chen SM, Chen FD, Fang WM, Deng YM, She LF (2010) Interspecific hybrids between Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Kitamura and D. nankingense (Nakai) Tzvel. achieved using ovary rescue and their cold tolerance characteristics. Euphytica 172:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dabbert T, Okagaki RJ, Cho S, Boddu J, Muehlbauer GJ (2009) The genetics of barley low-tillering mutants: absent lower laterals (als). Theor Appl Genet 118:1351–1360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Furones-Pérez P, Fernández-López J (2009) Usefulness of 13 morphological and phenological characteristics of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) for use in the DUS test. Euphytica 167:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Huh YJ, Lim JH, Park SK, Choi SR, Kim SH, Pak CH (2011) Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and trans-zeatin ribosides in relation to axillary bud formation in standard chrysanthemum. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 52:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Immadi S, Patil S, Maralappanavar M, Sajjanar G (2014) Penetrance, expressivity and inheritance of axillary branching in somaclonal mutant of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L.). Euphytica 196:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jiang BB, Miao HB, Chen SM, Zhang SM, Chen FD, Fang WM (2010) The Lateral Suppressor-Like gene, DgLsL, alternated the axillary branching in transgenic chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) by modulating IAA and GA content. Plant Mol Biol 28:144–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Leduc N, Roman H, Barbier F, Péron T, Huché-Thélier L, Lothier J, Demotes-Mainard S, Sakr S (2014) Light signaling in bud outgrowth and branching in plants. Plants 3:223–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li B, Wu R (1997) Heterosis and genotype × environment interactions of juvenile aspens in two contrasting sites. Can J For Res 27:1525–1537Google Scholar
  11. Liang JL, Zhao LJ, Challis R, Leyser O (2010) Strigolactone regulation of shoot branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum). J Exp Bot 61:3069–3078PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu WX, Hou AF, Peffley EB, Auld DL, Powell RJ (2006) The inheritance of a basal branching type in guar. Euphytica 151:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maralappanavar SM, Kuruvinashetti S, Chandrashekhar CH (2000) Regeneration, establishment and evaluation of somaclones in Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench. Euphytica 115:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sun CQ, Chen FD, Teng NJ, Liu ZL, Fang WM, Hou XL (2010) Interspecific hybrids between Chrysanthemum grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura and C. indicum (L.) Des Moul. and their drought tolerance evaluation. Euphytica 174:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tang FP, Chen FD, Chen SM, Teng NJ, Fang WM (2009) Intergeneric hybridization and relationship of genera within the tribe Anthemideae Cass. (I. Dendranthema crassum (kitam.) kitam. × Crossostephium chinense (L.) Makino). Euphytica 169:133–140Google Scholar
  16. UPOV (1989) Guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, homogeneity and stability. Chrysanthemumspec. In: TG/26/4 (ed) International union for the protection of new varieties of plantsGoogle Scholar
  17. Van Minnebruggen A, Cnops G, Saracutu O, Goormachtig S, Van Bockstaele E, Roldán-Ruiz I, Rohde A (2013) Processes underlying branching differences in fodder crops. Euphytica 195:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhu WY, Jiang JF, Chen SM, Wang L, Xu LL, Wang HB, Li PL, Guan ZY, Chen FD (2013) Intergeneric hybrid between Chrysanthemum × morifolium and Artemisia japonica achieved via embryo rescue shows salt tolerance. Euphytica 191:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape ArchitectureChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations