Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 194, Issue 3, pp 325–334 | Cite as

Morphology and heredity of tepal spots in Asiatic and Oriental hybrid lilies (Lilium spp.)

  • Masumi Yamagishi
  • Koichi Akagi
Article

Abstract

Petal spots constitute an important trait for ornamental flowers, because they generate variation in flower colour and pigmentation patterning. However, only a few reports have described the morphologies and inheritances of petal spots. Two types of spots—raised spots and splatters—appear on the flower tepals of lily (Lilium spp.). Here, we microscopically analysed the morphologies of raised spots and splatters, and compared them with those of petal spots in other species. The raised spots of lily showed an increase in the numbers of parenchymal and epidermal cells, and accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in these cells. We did not observe this type of morphology in the petal spots of rhododendron or Tricyrtis macropoda, indicating that the morphology observed in the raised spots is unique to lily. In the splatters of lily, anthocyanin pigments accumulated only in epidermal cells, and the shape of pigmented cells did not differ from that of unpigmented cells. These features were also observed in spots of T. macropoda. We subsequently investigated the inheritance of raised spots and splatters in an F1 segregating population. We revealed that F1 plants with raised spots, splatters, raised spots and splatters, or no spots showed a 1:1:1:1 segregation ratio, indicating that the two types of spots are genetically independent. Such knowledge will facilitate efficient selection during breeding programs focused on the development of cultivars with (or without) spots.

Keywords

Lily Anthocyanins Flower colour Raised spots Splatters Inheritance of spots 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Masanori Yasui, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, for help with the SEM analyses. This work was supported by a Grant-In-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 22580022) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

References

  1. Abe H, Nakano M, Nakatsuka A, Nakayama M, Koshioka M, Yamagishi M (2002) Genetic analysis of floral anthocyanin pigmentation traits in Asiatic hybrid lily using molecular linkage maps. Theor Appl Genet 105:1175–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert NW, Lewis DH, Zhang H, Schwinn KE, Jameson PE, Davies KM (2011) Members of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in Petunia are developmentally and environmentally regulated to control complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterning. Plant J 65:771–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asano Y (1989) Lilium L. In: Tsukamoto Y (ed) The grand dictionary of horticulture, vol 5. Syogakukan, Tokyo, pp 198–209 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Comber HF (1949) A new classification of the genus Lilium. In: Lily yearbook, vol. 13. The Royal Horticultural Society, London, pp 85–105Google Scholar
  5. Cooley AM, Willis JH (2009) Genetic divergence causes parallel evolution of flower color in Chilean Mimulus. New Phytol 183:729–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davies KM, Albert NW, Schwinn KE (2012) From landing lights to mimicry: the molecular regulation of flower colouration and mechanisms for pigmentation patterning. Funct Plant Biol 39:619–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deli J, Molnár P, Matus Z, Tóth G, Steck A, Pfander H (1998) Isolation and characterization of 3,5,6-trihydroxy-carotenoids from petals of Lilium tigrinum. Chromatographia 48:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fujino K, Hashida S, Ogawa T, Natsume T, Uchiyama T, Mikami T, Kishima Y (2011) Temperature controls nuclear import of Tam3 transposase in Antirrhinum. Plant J 65:146–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glover BJ, Walker RH, Moyroud E, Brockington SF (2013) How to spot a flower. New Phytol 197:687–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hichri I, Barrieu F, Bogs J, Kappel C, Delrot S, Lauvergeat V (2011) Recent advances in the transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. J Exp Bot 62:2465–2483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirai M, Yamagishi M, Kanno A (2012) Reduced transcription of a LEAFY-like gene in Alstroemeria sp. cultivar Green Coral that cannot develop floral meristems. Plant Sci 185–186:298–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iida S, Moria Y, Choi JD, Park KI, Hoshino A (2004) Genetic and epigenetics in flower pigmentation associated with transposable elements in morning glories. Adv Biophys 38:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Itoh Y, Higeta D, Suzuki A, Yoshida H, Ozeki Y (2002) Excision of transposable elements from the chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes may contribute to the variegation of the yellow-flowered carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Plant Cell Physiol 43:578–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeknić Z, Morré JT, Jeknić S, Jevremović S, Subotić A, Chen THH (2012) Cloning and functional characterization of a gene for capsanthin–capsorubin synthase from tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium Thunb. ‘Splendens’). Plant Cell Physiol 53:1899–1912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kamiishi Y, Otani M, Takagi H, Han D-S, Mori S, Tatsuzawa F, Okuhara H, Kobayashi H, Nakano M (2012) Flower color alteration in the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. by RNA interference-mediated suppression of the chalcone synthase gene. Mol Breed 30:671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kay QON, Daoud HS, Stirton CH (1981) Pigment distribution, light reflection and cell structure in petals. Bot J Linn Soc 83:57–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lai Y-S, Shimoyamada Y, Nakayama M, Yamagishi M (2012) Pigment accumulation and transcription of LhMYB12 and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes during flower development in the Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.). Plant Sci 193–194:136–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leslie AC (1982) The international lily register, 3rd edn. The Royal Horticultural Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Lim KB, van Tuyl JM (2006) Lily: Lilium hybrids. In: Anderson NO (ed) Flower breeding and genetics: Issues, challenges and opportunities for the 21st century. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 513–532Google Scholar
  20. Martins TR, Berg JJ, Blinka S, Rausher MD, Baum DA (2013) Precise spatio-temporal regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway leads to petal spot formation in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae). New Phytol 197:958–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McRae EA (1998) Lilies: a guide for growers and collectors. Timber Press Inc., PortlandGoogle Scholar
  22. Mizuta D, Ban T, Miyajima I, Nakatsuka A, Kobayashi N (2009) Comparison of flower color with anthocyanin composition patterns in evergreen azalea. Sci Hortic 122:594–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mizuta D, Nakatsuka A, Miyajima I, Ban T, Kobayashi N (2010) Pigment composition patterns and expression analysis of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in the petals of evergreen azalea ‘Oomurasaki’ and its red flower sport. Plant Breed 129:558–562Google Scholar
  24. Momonoi K, Yoshida K, Mano S, Takahashi H, Nakamori C, Shoji K, Nitta A, Nishimura M (2009) A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation. Plant J 59:437–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mudalige RG, Kuehnle AR, Amore TD (2003) Pigment distribution and epidermal cell shape in Dendrobium species and hybrids. HortScience 38:573–577Google Scholar
  26. Nakatsuka A, Yamagishi M, Nakano M, Tasaki K, Kobayashi N (2009) Light-induced expression of basic helix-loop-helix genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers and leaves of Asiatic hybrid lily. Sci Hortic 121:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nørbæk R, Kondo T (1999) Anthocyanins from flowers of Lilium (Liliaceae). Phytochemistry 50:1181–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schwinn K, Venail J, Shang Y, Mackay S, Alm V, Butelli E, Oyama R, Bailey P, Davies K, Martin C (2006) A small family of MYB-regulatory genes controls floral pigmentation intensity and patterning in the genus Antirrhinum. Plant Cell 18:831–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shang Y, Venail J, Mackay S, Bailey PC, Schwinn KE, Jameson PE, Martin CR, Davies KM (2011) The molecular basis for venation patterning of pigmentation and its effect on pollinator attraction in flowers of Antirrhinum. New Phytol 189:602–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shoji K, Miki N, Nakajima N, Momonoi K, Kato C, Yoshida K (2007) Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip cv. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions. Plant Cell Physiol 48:243–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shoji K, Momonoi K, Tsuji T (2010) Alternative expression of vacuolar iron transporter and ferritin genes leads to blue/purple coloration of flowers in tulip cv. ‘Murasakizuisho’. Plant Cell Physiol 51:215–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smyth DR, Kongsuwan K, Wisudharomn S (1989) A survey of C-band patterns in chromosomes of Lilium (Liliaceae). Plant Syst Evol 163:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas MM, Rudall PJ, Ellis AG, Savolainen V, Glover BJ (2009) Development of a complex floral trait: the pollinator-attracting petal spots of the beetle daisy, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae). Am J Bot 96:2184–2196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. van Houwelingen A, Souer E, Mol J, Koes R (1999) Epigenetic interactions among three dTph1 transposons in two homologous chromosomes activate a new excision-repair mechanism in petunia. Plant Cell 11:1319–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Yamagishi M (2011) Oriental hybrid lily Sorbonne homologue of LhMYB12 regulates anthocyanin biosyntheses in flower tepals and tepal spots. Mol Breed 28:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yamagishi M, Kishimoto S, Nakayama M (2010a) Carotenoid composition and changes in expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in tepals of Asiatic hybrid lily. Plant Breed 129:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamagishi M, Shimoyamada Y, Nakatsuka T, Masuda K (2010b) Two R2R3-MYB genes, homologues of petunia AN2, regulate anthocyanin biosyntheses in flower tepals, tepal spots and leaves of Asiatic hybrid lily. Plant Cell Physiol 51:463–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamagishi M, Yoshida Y, Nakayama M (2012) The transcription factor LhMYB12 determines anthocyanin pigmentation in the tepals of Asiatic hybrid lilies (Lilium spp.) and regulates pigment quantity. Mol Breed 30:913–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yoshida K, Toyama-Kato Y, Kameda K, Kondo T (2003) Sepal color variation of Hydrangea macrophylla and vacuolar pH measured with a proton-selective microelectrode. Plant Cell Physiol 44:262–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang J, Wang L, Shu Q, Liu Z, Li C, Zhang J, Wei X, Tian D (2007) Comparison of anthocyanins in non-blotches and blotches of the petals of Xibei tree peony. Sci Hortic 114:104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Faculty of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.School of Agriculture, Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations