, Volume 186, Issue 1, pp 139–151 | Cite as

Assessment of the spatial genotypic and phenotypic diversity present in the various winter wheat breeding programs in Southeast Europe

  • I. Karsai
  • Gy. Vida
  • S. Petrovics
  • E. Petcu
  • B. Kobiljski
  • S. Ivanovska
  • Z. Bedő
  • O. Veisz


The genetic diversity present in the breeding programs of southeast Europe was assessed in a set of 114 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using AFLP and SSR markers. The average genetic diversity characterised with the Jaccard’s distance coefficient was 0.605 with an interval of 0.053 and 0.889. The wheat cultivars originating from the four countries differed from each other in their clustering patterns, including the numbers of clusters and the most prevalent cluster, which was breeding program-specific. Hungarian and Romanian cultivars showed closer relationships, and Serbian and Macedonian cultivars grouped together more frequently. The phenotypic variability of the same cultivars was assessed under diverse ecological conditions of the four growing sites, measuring the disease resistance against two foliar diseases, and several agronomic traits. Of the phenotypic traits, powdery mildew and leaf rust responses showed significant associations with genetic diversity, whereas heading date, plant height and yield components did not. Through parallel assessment of genotypic and phenotypic diversity it was possible to separate winter wheat cultivars with similar genotype but diverse phenotype from those with similar phenotype but diverse genotype. This information will allow breeders to make informed decisions in selecting parents for new crosses.


AFLP Leaf rust Powdery mildew SSR 



This research was financed by a SEE-ERAnet project (No: 10237/2007-2008).

Supplementary material

10681_2011_510_MOESM1_ESM.doc (182 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 182 kb)
10681_2011_510_MOESM2_ESM.doc (62 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 62 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Karsai
    • 1
  • Gy. Vida
    • 1
  • S. Petrovics
    • 2
  • E. Petcu
    • 3
  • B. Kobiljski
    • 4
  • S. Ivanovska
    • 5
  • Z. Bedő
    • 1
  • O. Veisz
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesMartonvásárHungary
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture UniversityJ.J. StrossmayerOsijekCroatia
  3. 3.National Agricultural Research and Development InstituteFunduleaRomania
  4. 4.Institute of Field and Vegetable CropsNovi SadSerbia
  5. 5.Faculty for Agricultural Sciences and FoodUniversity of SkopjeSkopjeMacedonia

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