Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 180, Issue 1, pp 99–105 | Cite as

Heat stress in food legumes: evaluation of membrane thermostability methodology and use of infra-red thermometry

  • Hossam M. Ibrahim
Article

Abstract

Heat tolerance in 45 chickpea, lentil, and faba bean genotypes was investigated during 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 at Alexandria Agriculture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, using screening methods employing the membrane thermostability technique. Threshold temperature to be used in screening for heat tolerance at germination was also investigated for each crop. Temperatures, responsible for 50% germination were 40, 33.5, and 29°C for chickpea, faba bean, and lentil, respectively. Germination percent under high temperature varied significantly (P ≤ 0.05) amongst genotypes. Germination percentage ranged from 4.8 to 71.6, 39.2 to 90.0, and 4.8 to 68.6, in chickpea, lentil, and faba bean, respectively. Differences were significant (P ≤ 0.05) among faba bean and chickpea genotypes. Membrane relative injury (RI%) showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) variability among the genotypes and ranged from 10.57 to 58, 5.2 to 61.7, and 15.7 to 52.7 in chickpea, lentil, and faba bean, respectively. Canopy temperature was measured to evaluate heat avoidance in tested genotypes. Infra-red thermometry was used to measure canopy temperature and the gradient of canopy to ambient air temperature (∆TC-A) in moisture stressed and unstressed treatments. Canopy temperature, leaf water potential (LWP) and leaf water content were affected by the level of soil moisture. Genotypes were able to bring their canopy temperatures to levels lower than ambient air temperatures but the differences were not significant. A heat stress index (HSI) were computed relating the ∆TC-A in moisture stressed to unstressed treatments. Regression of leaf water potential (LWP) and the heat stress index (HSI) was significant (P ≤ 0.05) in faba bean genotypes in the stressful environment. The results of the present investigation emphasize the efficiency of membrane thermostability technique in selection for heat tolerance in early stages of growth in food legumes.

Keywords

Heat tolerance Membrane thermostability Canopy temperature Leaf water potential 

References

  1. AOSA (1983) Association of official seed analysis. Seed vigor testing handbook Publication No. 32, Association of Official Seed Analysts, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashraf M, Hafeez M (2004) Thermotolerance of pearl millet and maize at early growth stages: growth and nutrient relations. Biol Plant 48:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aston AR, Van Bavel HM (1972) Soil surface water depletion and leaf temperature. Agron J 64:368–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banon S, Fernandez JA, Franco JA, Torrecillas A, Alarcon JJ, Sanchez-Blanco MJ (2004) Effects of water stress and night temperature preconditioning on water relations and morphological and anatomical changes of Lotus creticus plants. Sci Hortic 101:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlson RE, Douglas NY, Shaw RH (1972) Environmental influences on the leaf temperatures of two soybean varieties grown under controlled irrigation. Agron J 64:224–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Covell S, Ellis RH, Roberts EH, Summerfield RS (1986) The influence of temperature on seed germination rate in grain legumes III. A comparison of five faba bean genotypes at constant temperatures using a new screening method. J Exp Bot 37:705–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehrler WL (1973) Cotton leaf temperature as related to soil water depletion and meteorological factors. Agron J 65:404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ehrler WL, Idso SB, Jakson RD, Reginato RJ (1978) Diurnal change in plant water potential and canopy temperature of wheat as affected by drought. Agron J 70:999–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gardner BR, Blad BL, Watts DG (1981) Plant and air temperatures in differentially irrigated corn. Agric Meterol 25:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ibrahim HM (1994) Tolerance and adaptation of chickpea to heat stress. Ph. D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  11. Ismail AM, Hall AE (1999) Reproductive-stage heat tolerance, leaf membrane thermostability and plant morphology in cowpea. Crop Sci 39:1762–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jackson RD, Idos SB, Reginato RJ, Pinter PJ (1981) Canopy temperature as a crop water stress indicator. Water Resour Res 17:1133–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khalaffalla AM (1985) Effect of sowing date, ridge direction, plant orientation and population on faba grain yield. FABIS Newslett 12:11–12Google Scholar
  14. Kramer PJ (1983) Water relations of plants. Academic Press Inc., OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  15. Leopold AC, Kriedemann PE (1975) Plant growth and development, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Levitt J (1980) Response of plants to environmental stresses, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Martineau JR, Specht JE, Williams JH, Sullivan CY (1978) Temperature tolerance in soybeans. 1. Evaluation of a technique for assessing cell membrane thermostability. Crop Sci 19:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saxena MC, Saxena NP, Mohamed AK (1988) World crops: cool season food legumes. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht. ISBN 90-247-3641-2Google Scholar
  19. Steel RG, Torrie JM (1984) Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Co Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Sullivan CY (1972) Mechanisms of heat and drought resistance in grain sorghum and methods of measurement. In: Roa NGP, House LR (eds) Sorghum in the seventies. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi, pp 247–264Google Scholar
  21. Tanner CB (1963) Plant and temperature. Agron J 55:210–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vander Maesen LJG (1972) Cicer L a monograph of genus, with special reference to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), its ecological and cultivation. Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp 10–72Google Scholar
  23. Weaich K, Briston KL, Cass A (1996) Modeling preemergent maize shoot growth. II. High temperature stress conditions. Agron J 88:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations