, Volume 173, Issue 3, pp 307–319 | Cite as

Mapping a major gene for growth habit and QTLs for ascochyta blight resistance and flowering time in a population between chickpea and Cicer reticulatum

  • N. Aryamanesh
  • M. N. Nelson
  • G. Yan
  • H. J. Clarke
  • K. H. M. Siddique


Ascochyta blight is a devastating disease of chickpea. Breeders have been trying to introduce resistance from wild Cicer into cultivated chickpea, however, the effort is hampered by the frequent genetic drag of undesirable traits. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify potential markers linked to plant growth habit, ascochyta blight resistance and days to flowering for marker-assisted breeding. An interspecific F2 population between chickpea and C. reticulatum was constructed to develop a genetic linkage map. F2 plants were cloned through stem cuttings for replicated assessment of ascochyta blight resistance. A closely linked marker (TA34) on linkage group (LG) 3 was identified for plant growth habit explaining 95.2% of the variation. Three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) explaining approximately 49% of the phenotypic variation were found for ascochyta blight resistance on LG 3 and LG 4. Flowering time was controlled by two QTLs on LG3 explaining 90.2% of the variation. Ascochyta blight resistance was negatively correlated with flowering time (r = −0.22, P < 0.001) but not correlated with plant growth habit.


Interspecific crossing Days to flowering Resistance genes and wild Cicer species 



We thank Dr Peter Winter and his group for providing sample microsatellite primers and technical advice. We are grateful to Professor Fred Muehlbauer, Dr Wallace Cowling, Professor Willie Erskine and Dr Judith Lichtenzveig for critical comments on the manuscript. We also thank Ms Leila Eshraghi for technical support and Miss Nola D’Souza and Professor Richard Oliver for providing some microsatellite primers. This project was supported by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran.


  1. Abbo S, Berger J, Turner NC (2003) Evolution of cultivated chickpea: four bottlenecks limit diversity and constrain adaptation. Funct Plant Biol 30:1081–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anbessa Y, Warkentin T, Vandenberg A, Ball R (2006) Inheritance of time to flowering in chickpea in a short-season temperate environment. J Hered 97:55–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aryamanesh N (2007) Chickpea improvement through genetic analysis and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of ascochyta blight resistance using wild Cicer species. The University of Western Australia, Perth, WAGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen W, Coyne CJ, Peever TL, Muehlbauer FJ (2004) Characterization of chickpea differentials for pathogenicity assay of ascochyta blight and identification of chickpea accessions resistant to Didymella rabiei. Plant Pathol 53:759–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho S, Kumar J, Shultz JL, Anupama K, Tefera F, Muehlbauer FJ (2002) Mapping genes for double podding and other morphological traits in chickpea. Euphytica 128:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho S, Chen W, Muehlbauer FJ (2004) Pathotype-specific genetic factors in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for quantitative resistance to ascochyta blight. Theor Appl Genet 109:733–739CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chongo G, Gossen BD, Buchwaldt L, Adhikari T, Rimmer SR (2004) Genetic diversity of Ascochyta rabiei in Canada. Plant Dis 88:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cobos MJ, Rubio J, Fernández-Romero MD, Garza R, Moreno MT, Millán T, Gil J (2007) Genetic analysis of seed size, yield and days to flowering in a chickpea recombinant inbred line population derived from a Kabuli x Desi cross. Ann Appl Biol 151:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collard B, Ades PK, Pang ECK, Brouwer JB, Taylor PWJ (2001) Prospecting for sources of resistance to ascochyta blight in wild Cicer species. Australas Plant Path 30:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collard BCY, Pang ECK, Ades PK, Taylor PWJ (2003) Preliminary investigation of QTLs associated with seedling resistance to ascochyta blight from Cicer echinospermum, a wild relative of chickpea. Theor Appl Genet 107:719–729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Coram TE, Pang ECK (2005) Isolation and analysis of candidate ascochyta blight defence genes in chickpea. Part II. Microarray expression analysis of putative defence-related ESTs. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 66:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Danehloueipour N, Yan G, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM (2006) Successful stem cutting propagation of chickpea, its wild relatives and their interspecific hybrids. Aust J Exp Agric 46:1349–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Danehloueipour N, Yan G, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM (2007) Diallel analyses reveal the genetic control of resistance to ascochyta blight in diverse chickpea and wild Cicer species. Euphytica 154:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. FAO (2006) FAOSTAT DATABASE., FAO, Rome
  15. Flandez-Galves H, Ford R, Pang ECK, Taylor PWJ (2003) An interspecific linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on sequence tagged microsatellite site and resistance gene analog markers. Theor Appl Genet 106:1447–1456Google Scholar
  16. Gumberm RK, Sarvjeet S (1996) Genetics of flowering time in chickpea: a preliminary report. Crop Improv 23:295–296Google Scholar
  17. Hedley CL, Ambrose MJ (1981) Designing ‘leafless’ plants for improving yields of the dried pea crop. Adv Agron 34:225–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huettel B, Winter P, Weising K, Choumane W, Weigand F, Kahl G (1999) Sequence-tagged microsatellite site markers for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Genome 42:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. IBPGR, ICRISAT, ICARDA (1993) Descriptors for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India; International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, SyriaGoogle Scholar
  20. Iruela M, Rubio J, Barro F, Cubero JI, Millan T, Gil J (2006) Detection of two QTL for resistance to ascochyta blight in an intraspecific cross of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): development of SCAR markers associated to resistance. Theor Appl Genet 112:278–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kazan K, Muehlbauer FJ, Weeden NF, Ladizinsky G (1993) Inheritance and linkage relationships of morphological and isozyme loci in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theor Appl Genet 86:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knights EJ, Siddique KHM (2002) Chickpea status and production constraints in Australia. In: Abu Bakr M, Siddique KHM, Johansen C (eds) Integrated management of Botrytis Grey mould of chickpea in Bangladesh and Australia. BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh and Crawley, Western Australia, pp 33–41Google Scholar
  23. Kottapalli P, Gaur PM, Katiyar SK, Crouch JH, Buhariwalla HK, Pande S, Gali KK (2009) Mapping and validation of QTLs for resistance to an Indian isolate of Ascochyta blight pathogen in chickpea. Euphytica 165:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar J, Abbo S (2001) Genetics of flowering time in chickpea and its bearing on productivity in semiarid environments. Adv Agron 72:107–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar J, van Rheenen HA (2000) A major gene for time of flowering in chickpea. J Hered 91:67–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar S, Rakshit S, Gupta S (2003) Genetics and cytogenetics of chickpea. In: Ali M, Kumar S, Singh NB (eds) Chickpea research in India. Indian institute of pulse research, Kanpur, pp 31–67Google Scholar
  27. Lichtenzveig J, Shtienberg D, Zhang HB, Bonfil DJ, Abbo S (2002) Biometric analyses of the inheritance of resistance to Didymella rabiei in chickpea. Phytopath 92:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lichtenzveig J, Scheuring C, Dodge J, Abbo S, Zhang HB (2005) Construction of BAC and BIBAC libraries and their applications for generation of SSR markers for genome analysis of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. Theor Appl Genet 110:492–510CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lichtenzveig J, Bonfil DJ, Zhang HB, Shtienberg D, Abbo S (2006) Mapping quantitative trait loci in chickpea associated with time to flowering and resistance to Didymella rabiei the causal agent of Ascochyta blight. Theor Appl Genet 113:1357–1369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Manly KF, Cudmore RH, Meer JM (2001) Map Manager QTX, cross-platform software for genetic mapping. Mamm Genome 12:930–932CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Millan T, Rubio J, Iruela M, Daly K, Cubero JI, Gil J (2003) Markers associated with ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea and their potential in marker-assisted selection. Field Crops Res 84:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Millan T, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM, Buhariwalla HK, Gaur PM, Kumar J, Gil J, Kahl G, Winter P (2006) Chickpea molecular breeding: new tools and concepts. Euphytica 147:81–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nene YL (1984) A review of ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). In: Saxena MC, Singh KB (eds) Ascochyta blight and winter sowing of chickpea. Martinus, Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands, pp 17–34Google Scholar
  34. Or E, Hovov R, Abbo S (1999) A major gene for flowering time in chickpea. Crop Sci 39:315–322Google Scholar
  35. Pande S, Siddique KHM, Kishore GK, Bayaa B, Gaur PM, Gowda CLL, Bertag TW, Crouch JH (2005) Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a review of biology pathogenicity, and disease management. Aust J Agric Res 56:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Porta-Puglia A, Bretag TW, Brouwer JB, Haware MP, Khalil SA (2000) Direct and indirect influences of morphological variations on diseases, yield and quality. In: Knight R (ed) Linking research and marketing opportunities for pulses in the 21st century. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 199–220Google Scholar
  37. Rakshit S, Winter P, Tekeoglu M, Munoz JJ, Pfaff T, Benko-Iseppon AM (2003) DAF marker tightly linked to a major locus for ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica 132:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reddy MV, Singh KB (1984) Evaluation of a world collection of chickpea germplasm accessions for resistance to ascochyta blight. Plant Dis 68:900–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rhaiem A, Cherif M, Dyer PS, Peever TL (2007) Distribution of mating types and genetic diversity of Ascochyta rabiei populations in Tunisia revealed by mating-type-specific PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. J Phytopathol 155:596–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Santra DK, Tekeoglu M, Ratnaparkhe M, Kaiser WJ, Muehlbauer FJ (2000) Identification and mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Crop Sci 40:1606–1612Google Scholar
  41. Shah SG, Pearson CJ, Read JW (1990) Variability in habit, flowering and seed production within the Kangaroo Valley cultivar of Lolium perenne when grown in a range of environments. Aust J Agric Res 41:901–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Singh D, Shyam R (1959) Genetics of two new mutants in Cicer arietinum. Indian J Genet 19:73–82Google Scholar
  43. Tekeoglu M, Santra DK, Kaiser WJ, Muehlbauer FJ (2000) Ascochyta blight resistance inheritance in three chickpea recombinant inbred line populations. Crop Sci 40:1251–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tekeoglu M, Rajesh PN, Muehlbauer FJ (2002) Integration of sequence tagged microsatellite sites to the chickpea genetic map. Theor Appl Genet 105:847–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Tar’an B, Warkentin TD, Tullu A, Vandenberg A (2007) Genetic mapping of ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using a simple sequence repeat linkage map. Genome 50:26–34Google Scholar
  46. Udupa SM, Baum M (2003) Genetic dissection of pathotype-specific resistance to ascochyta blight disease in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 106:1196–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Winter P, Pfaff T, Udupa SM, Huttel B, Sharma PC, Sahi S, Arreguin-Espinoza R, Weigand F, Muehlbauer FJ, Kahl G (1999) Characterization and mapping of sequence tagged microsatellite sites in the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome. Mol Gen Genet 262:90–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Winter P, Benko-Iseppon AM, Huttel B, Ratnaparkhe M, Tullu A, Sonnante G, Pfaff T, Tekeoglu M, Santra D, Sant VJ, Rajesh PN, Kahl G, Muehlbauer FJ (2000) A linkage map of the chichpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lined from a C. arietinum × C. reticulatum cross: localization of resistance genes for Fusarium wilt races 4 and 5. Theor Appl Genet 101:1155–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Aryamanesh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. N. Nelson
    • 1
    • 3
  • G. Yan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • H. J. Clarke
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. H. M. Siddique
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Plant Biology (M084), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA)The University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of AgricultureThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations