, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 113–125 | Cite as

Inheritance of anthocyanins in berries of Vitis vinifera grapes

  • Zhenchang Liang
  • Chunxiang Yang
  • Jun Yang
  • Benhong Wu
  • Lijun Wang
  • Jieshan Cheng
  • Shaohua Li


Inheritance patterns for table grape anthocyanins were investigated on three cross offspring populations during two successive years. Sixteen anthocyanins were detected, and all were monoglucoside derivatives. The proportion of anthocyanins in the maternal parent determined the proportion of anthocyanins in the offspring. But the absolute content of the maternal parent had no significant effect on progenies. Peonidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, not only in the maternal parent but also in the progenies. The presence or absence of anthocyanins in grape skin was inheritance of a quality character controlled by oligogenes, and anthocyanins content was a quantitative character controlled by polygenes. Via principal component (PC) analysis, factors that affected the total content of cross progeny populations were peonidin 3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside. Anthocyanins content was a high broad sense heritability character (H2), and H2 was stable in different cross combinations (ranging from 0.65 to 0.98).


Anthocyanin Broad-sense heritability Climatic condition Table grape 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Funds of China [30771494] and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences [KSCX2-YW-N-032]. We would also like to thank Dr. Wayne Loescher (Professor, Michigan State University, MI, USA) for his critical review of the manuscript and beneficial comments.


  1. Ballea E (1975) Inheritance of some characters and traits in F1 hybrid progeny from crosses of Coarncă neagră with various male parents. Vitic Sivini 46:31–44Google Scholar
  2. Barritt BH, Einset J (1969) The inheritance of three major fruit colors in grapes. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 94:87–89Google Scholar
  3. Benyei F, Lorincz A, Gacsi T, Lukacsy G (2003) The results of the crossbreeding of the department of viticulture. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on grape genetics and breeding. Kecskemet, Hungary, pp 697–699Google Scholar
  4. Bergqvist J, Dokoozlian N, Ebisuda N (2001) Sunlight exposure and temperature effects on berry growth and composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache in the central San Joaquin valley of California. Am J Enol Vitic 52:1–7Google Scholar
  5. Brown AG, Harvey DM (1971) The nature and inheritance of sweetness and acidity in cultivated apple. Euphytica 20:68–80. doi: 10.1007/BF00146776 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cacho J, Fernandez P, Ferreira V, Castells JE (1992) Evolution of five anthocyanidin-3-glucosides in the skin of the Tempranillo, Moristel, and Garnacha grape varieties and influence of climatological variables. Am J Enol Vitic 43:244–248Google Scholar
  7. Campostrini F, Micheli LD, Stefanini M, Mastromauro F (1994) Genetic variance and stability about some quantitative traits in a population of vine (Vitis vinifera). In: VIth int symp on grape breed. Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, pp 9–20Google Scholar
  8. Carreňo J, Martínez A (1995) Proposal of an index for objective evaluation of the color of red table grapes. Food Res Int 28:373–377. doi: 10.1016/0963-9969(95)00008-A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castellarin SD, Gaspero GD, Marconi R, Nonis A, Peterlunger E, Paillard S, Adam-Blondon Anne-Francoise, Testolin R (2006) Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organization, expression of flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanindin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin. BMC Genom 7:1–12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng JZ, Qu HG (1996) Overview of anthocyanins in Vitis. Sino-Overseas Grapevine Wine 2:25–27Google Scholar
  11. Firoozabady E, Olmo HP (1987) Heritability and correlation studies of certain quantitative traits in table grapes. Vitis 26:132–146Google Scholar
  12. Goldy RG (1989) Pigment quantity and quality characteristics of some native Vitis rotudifolia Michx. Am J Enol Vitic 40:253–258Google Scholar
  13. Goldy RG, Maness EP, Stiles HD, Clark JR, Wilson MA (1989) Pigment quantity and quality characteristics of some native Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Am J Enol Vitic 40:253–258Google Scholar
  14. He PC (1999) Grape science. Chinese Agriculture Press, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  15. Ibáñez J, Andrés MTD, Molino A, Borrego (2003) Genetic study of key Spanish grapevine varieties using microsatellite analysis. Am J Enol Vitic 54:22–29Google Scholar
  16. Jaillon O et al (2007) The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449:463–467. doi: 10.1038/nature06148 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koeppen BH, Basson DS (1965) The anthocyanin pigments of Barlinka grapes. Phytochemistry 5:183–187. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85097-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li FM, Zhang FQ (1989) Grape breeding in China. In: Proceedings of the fifth international symposium on grape breeding. St. Martin/Pfalz, FR of Germany, pp 212–215Google Scholar
  19. Liang ZC, Wu BH, Fan PG, Yang CX, Duan W, Zheng XB, Liu CY, Li SH (2008) Anthocyanin composition and content in grape berry skin in Vitis germplasm. Food Chem 111:837–844. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lijavetzky D, Ruiz-García L, Cabezas JA, André MTD, Bravo G, Ibáñez A, Carreño J, Cabello F, Ibáñez J, Martínez-Zapater JM (2006) Molecular genetics of berry colour variation in table grape. Mol Genet Genom 276:427–435. doi: 10.1007/s00438-006-0149-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu HF, Wu BH, Fan PG, Xu HY, Li SH (2007) Inheritance of sugars and acids in berries of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Euphytica 153:99–107. doi: 10.1007/s10681-006-9246-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luo SL, He PC (2004) The inheritances of fruit skin and must colors in a series of interspecific and intraspecific crosses between Vitis vinifera and the wild grape species native to China. Sci Hortic 99:29–40. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(03)00085-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morais H, Ramos C, Forgács E, Cserháti T, Oliiera J (2002) Influence of storage conditions on the stability of monomeric anthocyanins studied by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci 770:297–301. doi: 10.1016/S1570-0232(02)00055-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park KS, Yun HK, Bouk RJS, Sang K, Lee J, Jae H (2003) Inheritance of stenospermocarpic seedlessness in grapes (Vitis spp.). J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 44:675–677Google Scholar
  25. Pomar F, Novo M, Masa A (2005) Varietal differences among the anthocyanin profiles of 50 red table grape cultivars studied by high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1094:34–41. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.096 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sandhu AS (1988) Inheritance of berry color in grapes (Vitis vinifera). J Res Punjab Agric Univ 25:37–39Google Scholar
  27. Shi Y, Li Y, Wang Q (1984) Mutation breeding of fruit tree. Shanghai Scientific and Technology Publisher, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  28. Spiegel-Roy P, Assaf R (1980) Inheritance of some characters in progeny of Vitis vinifera from crosses with Dabouki and Alphonse Lavallee. In: Proceedings of the third intenational symposium on grape breeding. 15–18 June 1980, Davis, CA. Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, pp 210–219Google Scholar
  29. Wu BH, Quilot B, Ge’nard M, Kervellac J, Li SH (2005) Changes in sugar and organic acid concentrations during fruit maturation in peaches, P. davidiana and hybrids as analyzed by principal component analysis. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 103:429–439. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2004.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wulf LW, Nagel CW (1978) High pressure liquid chromatographic separation of anthocyanins of Vitis vinifera. Am J Enol Vitic 29:42–49Google Scholar
  31. Yokotsuka K, Singleton VL (1997) Disappearance of anthocyanins as grape juice is prepared and oxidized with PPO and PPO substrates. Am J Enol Vitic 48:13–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhenchang Liang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chunxiang Yang
    • 1
  • Jun Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Benhong Wu
    • 1
  • Lijun Wang
    • 1
  • Jieshan Cheng
    • 1
  • Shaohua Li
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations