, Volume 165, Issue 3, pp 471–484 | Cite as

Molecular genetic analysis of flour color using a doubled haploid population in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  • Kun-Pu Zhang
  • Guang-Feng Chen
  • Liang Zhao
  • Bin Liu
  • Xian-Bin Xu
  • Ji-Chun Tian


Flour color is an important trait in the assessment of flour quality for the production of many end products. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with additive effects, epistatic effects, and QTL × environment (QE) interactions for flour color in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied, using a set of 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a Huapei 3 × Yumai 57 cross. A genetic map was constructed using 283 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 22 expressed sequence tags (EST)-SSR markers. The DH and parents were evaluated for flour color in three environments. QTL analyses were performed using QTLNetwork 2.0 software based on a mixed linear model approach. A total of 18 additive QTLs and 24 pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for flour color, which were distributed on 19 of the 21 chromosomes. One major QTL, qa1B, closely linked to barc372 0.1 cM, could account for 25.64% of the phenotypic variation of a* without any influence from the environments. So qa1B could be used in the molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs. The results showed that both additive and epistatic effects were important genetic basis for flour color, and were also sometimes subject to environmental modifications. The information obtained in this study should be useful for manipulating the QTLs for flour color by MAS in wheat breeding programs.


Doubled haploid Epistatic effects Flour color Marker-assisted selection Quantitative trait loci Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 



The authors gratefully thank Professor Yan Hai (Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, China) for kindly providing the research materials and Dr. Xianchun Xia (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) for donating some primers. The present research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30671270), Hi-Tech Research and Development (863) Program of China (2006AA10Z1E9 and 2006AA100101), and Improved Variety Project of Shandong Province (LN2006-6).


  1. Börner A, Schumann E, Furste A, Coster H, Leithold B, Röder MS, Weber WE (2002) Mapping of quantitative trait loci determining agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 105:921–936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cao G, Zhu J, He C, Gao Y, Yan J, Wu P (2001) Impact of epistasis and QTL×environment interaction on the developmental behavior of plant height in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 103:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen JF, Ren ZL, Gao LF, Jia JZ (2005) Developing new SSR markers from EST of wheat. Acta Agro Sini 31:154–158Google Scholar
  4. CIE (1976) CIE, Committee TC-1.3 CIE, Technical note. J Opt Soc Am 64:896–897Google Scholar
  5. Doerge RW (2002) Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations. Nat Rev 3:43–52Google Scholar
  6. Dudley JW, Lamkey KR, Geadelmann JL (1996) Evaluation of populations for their potential to improve three maize hybrids. Crop Sci 36:1553–1559Google Scholar
  7. Ellis MH, Rebetzke GJ, Azanza F, Richards RA, Spielmeyer W (2005) Molecular mapping of gibberellin responsive dwarfing genes in bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 111:423–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan CC, Yu XQ, Xing YZ, Xu CG, Luo LJ, Zhang QF (2005) The main effects, epistatic effects and environmental interactions of QTLs on the cooking and eating quality of rice in a doubled-haploid line population. Theor Appl Genet 110:1445–1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guo CQ, Bai ZA, Liao PA, Jin WK (2004) New high quality and yield wheat variety Yumai 57. China Seed Ind 4:54Google Scholar
  10. Hai Y, Kang MH (2007) Breeding of Hupei 3 new wheat variety with high yield and early maturing. Henan Agric Sci 5:36–37Google Scholar
  11. Huang XQ, Coster H, Ganal MW, Röder MS (2003) Advanced backcross QTL analysis for the identification of quantitative trait loci alleles from wild relatives of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 106:1379–1389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang XQ, Cloutier S, Lycar L, Radovanovic N, Humphreys DG, Noll JS, Somers DJ, Brown PD (2006) Molecular detection of QTLs for agronomic and quality traits in a doubled haploid population derived from two Canadian wheats (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 113:753–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hutchings JB (1994) Food color and appearance. Chapman and Hall, Great Britain; Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Karakousis A, Gustafson JP, Chalmers KJ, Barr AR, Langridge P (2003) A consensus map of barley integrating SSR, RFLP, and AFLP markers. Aust J Agric Res 54:1173–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Knott DR (1984) The genetic nature of mutations of a gene for yellow pigment linked to Lr19 in ‘Agatha’ wheat. Can J Genet Cytol 26:392–393Google Scholar
  16. Kruger JE, Anderson MH, Dexter JE (1994) Effect of flour refinement on raw cantonese noodle color and texture. Cereal Chem 71:177–182Google Scholar
  17. Li X, Yang W, Li Y, Liu D, Yan H, Meng Q, Zhang T (2005) A SSR marker for leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 in wheat. Sci Agric Sini 38:1156–1159Google Scholar
  18. Lin HX, Yamamoto T, Sasaki T, Yano M (2000) Characterization and detection of epistatic interactions of three QTLs, Hd1, Hd2 and Hd3, controlling heading date in rice using nearly isogenic lines. Theor Appl Genet 101:1021–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu DC, Gao MQ, Guan RX, Li RZ, Cao SH, Guo XL, Zhang AM (2002) Mapping Quantitative trait loci for plant height in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using a F2:3 population. Acta Genet Sini 9:706–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu GF, Yang J, Xu HM, Zhu J (2007a) Influence of epistasis and QTL × environment interaction on heading date of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Genet Genomics 34:608–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu Y, Yan H, Yang W, Meng Q, Zhang T, Liu D (2007b) Identification of a SRAP markers linked to leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 in wheat. Acta Agric Boreali Sini 22:193–196Google Scholar
  22. Ma JF, Shen RF, Zhao ZQ, Wissuwa M, Takeuchi Y, Ebitani T, Yano M (2002) Response of rice to Al stress and identification of quantitative trait loci for Al tolerance. Plant Cell Physiol 43:652–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma W, Appels R, Bekes F, Larroque O, Morell MK, Gale KR (2005) Genetic characterisation of dough rheological properties in a wheat doubled haploid population: additive genetic effects and epistatic interactions. Theor Appl Genet 111:410–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma XQ, Tang JH, Teng WT, Yan JB, Meng YJ, Li JS (2007) Epistatic interaction is an important genetic basis of grain yield and its components in maize. Mol Breed 20:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mares DJ, Campbell AW (2001) Mapping components of flour and noodle color in Australian wheat. Aust J Agric Res 52:1297–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miskelly DM (1984) Flour components affecting paste and noodle color. J Sci Food Agric 35:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parker GD, Langridge P (2000) Development of a STS marker linked to a major locus controlling flour color in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Mol Breed 6:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Parker GD, Chalmers KJ, Rathjen AJ, Langridge P (1998) Mapping loci associated with flour color in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 97:238–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pestsova E, Ganal MW, Röder MS (2000) Isolation and mapping of microsatellite markers specific for the D genome of bread wheat. Genome 43:689–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rebetzke GJ, Ellis MH, Bonnett DG, Richards RA (2007) Molecular mapping of genes for Coleoptile growth in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 114:1173–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Röder MS, Korzun V, Wendehake K, Plaschke J, Tixier MH, Leroy P, Ganal MW (1998) A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149:2007–2023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Saito K, Hayano-Saito Y, Maruyama-Funatsuki W, Sato Y, Kato A (2004) Physical mapping and putative candidate gene identification of a quantitative trait locus Ctb1 for cold tolerance at the booting stage of rice. Theor Appl Genet 109:515–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Somers DJ, Isaac P, Edwards K (2004) A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 109:1105–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun XD, Wang LK, Ren HB, Lan J (2002) The application of tristimulus colorimeter in the determination of flour color. Technol Oil Food 10:31–33Google Scholar
  35. Wang DL, Zhu J, Li ZK, Paterson AH (1999) Mapping QTLs with epistatic effects and QTL×environment interactions by mixed linear model approaches. Theor Appl Genet 99:1255–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang J, Zhu J (2005) Predicting superior genotypes in multiple environments based on QTL effects. Theor Appl Genet 110:1268–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang X, Tian JC (2008) The color advantage of Chinese wheat with high whiteness and analysis of factors affecting color formation. Sci Agri Sini 41:347–353Google Scholar
  38. Zhang LP, Yan J, Xia XC, He ZH, Sutherland MW (2006) QTL mapping for kernel yellow pigment content in common wheat Mapping QTLs for polyphenol oxidase activity in a DH population from common wheat. Acta Agro Sini 32:41–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kun-Pu Zhang
    • 1
  • Guang-Feng Chen
    • 2
  • Liang Zhao
    • 1
  • Bin Liu
    • 1
  • Xian-Bin Xu
    • 3
  • Ji-Chun Tian
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop BiologyGroup of Quality Wheat Breeding of Shandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anChina
  2. 2.Agronomic DepartmentDezhou CollegeDezhouChina
  3. 3.Dezhou Academy of Agricultural SciencesDezhouChina

Personalised recommendations