Breeding against Dutch elm disease adapted to the Mediterranean climate
- 181 Downloads
Breeding for resistance was considered one of the possible ways to limit the damages caused by the epidemics of Dutch elm disease (DED) during the last century. The elm breeding program developed by CNR in Italy was based on the idea that the Mediterranean environment would need its own specific selections. A base broadening of the genetic resources was operated. A base of native elms with a set of good characters to act as parents was bred with different Asian elm species that showed the ability of acclimatization to the different climates in which elms have to be planted. For this aim a large collection of elm species was constituted, followed by hybridisation studies. Progenies were tested for DED resistance. The more resistant clones were planted in trial fields characterised by contrasting Mediterranean climates in order to select the best potential genotypes adapted either to coastal or to mountain environmental conditions. More than 60 clones resistant, fast-growing and showing remarkable aesthetic ornamental characters were obtained.
KeywordsDutch elm disease Breeding Resistance Elm Mediterranean climate
The C.N.R. elm collections could not have been constituted without the help and the sharing spirit of many colleagues from all over the world, to whom our warmest thanks are devoted. In particular we wish to thank Hans M. Heybroek, Eugene B. Smalley, Raymond P. Guries, Alden M. Townsend, and Frank S. Santamour Jr.. The unique technical assistance of Mr. Fabio Ferrini, Mr. Alberto Fagnani and Mr. Abdellah Dahmani made possible the realisation of this 30-year-long work. Authors wish to thank Dr. Stefano Vagniluca and Dr. Luciano Sammarone of the Corpo forestale dello Stato UTB Follonica (GR) and UTB Castel di Sangro (AQ) respectively, for having provided and taken care of the experimental fields.
Authors wish to thank Hans M. Heybroek and Eric Collin for the critical review of the paper, for their friendship and for all the useful suggestions along these years.
- Brasier CM (2000) Intercontinental spread and continuing evolution of the Dutch elm disease pathogens. In: Dunn CP (ed) The elms: breeding, conservation, and disease management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Collin E, Bilger I, Eriksson G, Turok J (2000) The conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe. In: Dunn CP (ed) The elms: breeding, conservation and disease management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Cox TS, Wood D (1999) The nature and role of crop biodiversity. In: Wood D, Lenne JM (eds) Agrobiodiversity: characterization, utilization, and management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
- Grant V (1981) Plant speciation, 2nd edn. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Guries RP (2001) Elms: past, present, and future. In: Ash CL (ed) Proceeding of national conference on wilt diseases of shade trees. St. Paul, Minnesota 25–28 August 1999, USA, APS Press pp 29–36Google Scholar
- Heybroek HM (1993) The Dutch elm breeding program. In: Sticklen MB, Sherald JL (eds) Dutch elm disease. Cellular and molecular approaches. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Heybroek HM (2000) Notes on elm breeding and genetics. In: Dunn CP (ed) The elms: breeding, conservation, and disease management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Mittempergher L, La Porta N (1991). Hybridisation studies in the Eurasian species of elm (Ulmus spp.). Silvae gen 40:237–243Google Scholar
- Mittempergher L (2000) Elm yellows in Europe. In: Dunn CP (ed) The elms: breeding, conservation, and disease management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Mittempergher L, Santini A (2004) The history of elm breeding. Invest Agrar: Sist Recur For 13:161–177Google Scholar
- Rohring E (1996) Elms in Europe: ecology and Dutch elm disease. Forstarchiv 67:179–198Google Scholar
- Santini A, Fagnani A, Ferrini F, Mittempergher L (2002) San Zanobi and Plinio elmtrees. Hortscience 37:1139–1141Google Scholar
- Santini A, Fagnani A, Ferrini F, Ghelardini L, Mittempergher L (2007) ‘Fiorente’ and ‘Arno’ Elm trees. Hortscience 42(3):712–714Google Scholar
- Sholtz HF (1957) Rock elm (Ulmus thomasii). Lake States For Exp Sta Paper 47:16Google Scholar