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Euphytica

, Volume 160, Issue 1, pp 75–87 | Cite as

CO2-assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence as indirect selection criteria for host tolerance against Striga

  • Jonne Rodenburg
  • Lammert Bastiaans
  • Ad. H. C. M. Schapendonk
  • Peter E. L. van der Putten
  • Aad van Ast
  • Niels J. Dingemanse
  • Bettina I. G. Haussmann
Article

Abstract

Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. is a parasitic weed on tropical cereals causing serious yield losses in Africa. The use of host crop varieties with improved resistance and tolerance against this parasite is a key component of an integrated control strategy. Breeding for tolerance is however seriously hampered by the absence of reliable and yet practical selection measures. The observation that the photosynthetic rate of tolerant genotypes is less sensitive to Striga infection was used as a starting point to search for suitable selection measures. In a greenhouse pot experiment the effect of Striga infection on the photosynthesis of four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) genotypes, differing in Striga tolerance level, was measured at three moments in time (26, 48 and 75 days after sowing). Genotypes were CK60-B, E36-1, Framida and Tiémarifing. Measurements involved CO2-assimilation (A) and three chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics (electron transport rate through photosystem II [ETR], photochemical [Pq] and non-photochemical quenching [NPq]). Striga infection negatively affected A, ETR and Pq. Based on A and Pq, genotypes with superior levels of tolerance (Tiémarifing) could be discriminated from genotypes with superior level of resistance (Framida). Both A and Pq showed high heritabilities and consequently clear and predictable differences between genotypes. Using discriminative ability, heritability and cost effectiveness as main criteria, photochemical quenching (Pq) was concluded to possess the highest potential to serve as indirect selection measure for host plant tolerance to Striga. Screening should preferably be conducted at relatively high Striga infestation levels, between Striga emergence and host plant flowering.

Keywords

Defence mechanisms Parasitic weeds Photochemical quenching Photosynthesis Selection measures Sorghum bicolor 

Abbreviations

A

Leaf CO2-assimilation rate (μmol CO2 m−2 s−1)

ETR

The electron transport rate through photosystem II (μmol m−2 s−1)

fabs

The absorbtivity of the leaf (−)

Fm

The maximum fluorescence emission induced by a saturating light pulse in the light (−)

Fm

The maximum fluorescence emission induced by a saturating light pulse in the dark (−)

Fo

The basic fluorescence in the light when all PSII centres are oxidized by a period of far-red light (−)

Ft

The steady-state fluorescence emission (−)

I

The light intensity (μmol photon m−2 s−1)

NPq

The level of non-photochemical quenching (−)

φ2

The electron transport efficiency of PSII (−)

PAR

Photosynthetically active radiation (μmol photon m−2 s−1)

PS

Photosystem

Pq

The level of photochemical quenching (−)

R

Repeatability

RYL

Relative yield loss (%)

S2

Within-group variance component

S2A

Among-group variance component

VEG

General environmental variance

VES

Environmental variance due to temporary or localized environmental effects

VG

Genotypic variance

VP

Phenotypic variance

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial assistance for this study was made possible through the beneficence of the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO). We thank Wageningen University (WU), Wageningen Plants Sciences Experimental Center (WPSEC) and the Africa Rice Center (WARDA) and in particular Ans Hofman and Henriette Drenth (WU), Geurt Versteeg, Peter Saat, Taede Stoker and Henk Meurs (WPSEC).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonne Rodenburg
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lammert Bastiaans
    • 2
  • Ad. H. C. M. Schapendonk
    • 3
  • Peter E. L. van der Putten
    • 2
  • Aad van Ast
    • 2
  • Niels J. Dingemanse
    • 4
  • Bettina I. G. Haussmann
    • 5
  1. 1.Africa Rice Center (WARDA)Saint LouisSenegal
  2. 2.Crop and Weed Ecology Group, Department of Plant SciencesWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Plant Dynamics BVWageningenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies & Department of Behavioural Biology, Centre for Behaviour and NeurosciencesUniversity of GroningenHarenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) – NiameyNiameyNiger

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