Allelic relationships of genes controlling number of flowers per axis in chickpea
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Genetic variation for number of flowers per axis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) includes single-flower, double-flower, triple-flower and multi-flower traits. A double-flowered (DF) line ICC 4929, a triple-flowered (TF) line IPC 99-18 and a multi-flowered (MF) line JGM 7 were intercrossed in all possible combinations and flowering behavior of parents, F1s and F2s was studied to establish allelic relationships, penetrance and expressivity of genes controlling number of flowers per axis in chickpea. The F1 from ICC 4929 (DF) × IPC 99-18 (TF) cross were double-flowered, whereas F1 from ICC 4929 (DF) × JGM 7 (MF) and IPC 99-18 (TF) × JGM 7 (MF) crosses were single-flowered. The F2 from ICC 4929 (DF) × IPC 99-18 (TF) cross gave a good fit to a 3:1 ratio for double-flowered and triple-flowered plants. The F2 from ICC 4929 (DF) × JGM 7 (MF) cross segregated in a ratio of 9:3:3:1 for single-flowered, double-flowered, multi-flowered and double-multi-flowered plants. The F2 from IPC 99-18 (TF) × JGM 7 (MF) cross segregated in a ratio of 9:3:4 for single-flowered, triple-flowered and multi-flowered plants. The results clearly established that two loci control number of flowers per axis in chickpea. The double-flower and triple-flower traits are controlled by a single-locus (Sfl) and the allele for double-flowered trait (sfl d ) is dominant over the allele for triple-flower trait (sfl t ). The three alleles at the Sfl locus has the dominance relationship Sfl > sfl d > sfl t . The multi-flower trait is controlled by a different gene (cym). Single-flowered plants have dominant alleles at both the loci (Sfl_ Cym_). The double-flower, the triple-flower and the multi-flower traits showed complete penetrance, but variable expressivity. The expressivity was 96.3% for double-flower and 76.4% for double-pod in ICC 4929, 81.2% for triple-flower and 0.0% for triple-pod in IPC 99-18, and 51.3% for multi-flower and 24.7% for multi-pod in JGM 7. Average number of flowers per axis and average number of pods per axis were higher in JGM 7 than double-flowered line ICC 4929 and triple-flowered line IPC 99-18. The results of this study will help in development of breeding strategies for exploitation of these flowering and podding traits in chickpea improvement.
KeywordsCicer arietinum Expressivity Flower number Multiple alleles Penetrance
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Technical assistance of Md. Aziz is gratefully acknowledged.
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