Pattern analysis on grain yield performance of Chinese and CIMMYT spring wheat cultivars sown in China and CIMMYT
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Understanding the relationships among testing environments is essential for better targeting cultivars to production environments. To identify patterns of cultivar, environment, cultivar-by-environment interactions, and opportunities for indirect selection for grain yield, a set of 25 spring wheat cultivars from China and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) was evaluated in nine environments in China and four management environments at CIMMYT in Cd. Obregon, Mexico, during two wheat seasons. Genetic background and original environment were the main factors influencing grain yield performance of the cultivars. Baviacora M 92, Xinchun 2 and Xinchun 6 showed relatively more stable and higher grain yields, whereas highly photoperiod sensitive cultivars Xinkehan 9, Kefeng 6 and Longmai 19 proved consistently inferior across environments, except in Harbin and Keshan, the two high latitude environments. Longmai 26, also from high latitude environments in the north-eastern Heilongjiang province, was however probably not as photoperiodicly sensitive as other cultivars from that region, and produced much higher grain yield and expressed a broader adaptation. None of the environments reported major diseases. Pattern analyses revealed that photoperiod response and planting option on beds were the two main factors underlying the observed interactions for grain yield. The production environment of planting on the flat in Mexico grouped together with Huhhot and Urumqi in both wheat seasons, indicating an indirect response to selection for grain yield in this CIMMYT managed environment could benefit the two Chinese environments. Both the environment of planting on the flat with Chinese Hejin and Yongning, and the three CIMMYT environments planting on raised beds with Chinese Yongning grouped together only in one season, showing that repeatability may not be stable in this case.
KeywordsTriticum aestivum bread wheat grain yield cultivar-by-environment interaction pattern analysis
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