Advertisement

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

, Volume 8, Issue 1–2, pp 83–103 | Cite as

Reasonable Impartiality and Priority for Compatriots. A Criticism of Liberal Nationalism’s Main flaws

  • Veit Bader
Article

Abstract

Distinguishing between reasonable partiality and reasonable impartiality makes a difference in resolving the serious clashes between ‘priority for compatriots’ versus cosmopolitan global duties. Defenders of a priority for compatriots have to acknowledge two strong moral constraints: states have to fulfil all their special, domestic and trans-domestic duties, and associative duties are limited by distributive constraints resulting from the moral duty to fight poverty and gross global inequalities. In the recent global context, I see four main problems for liberal-nationalist defenders of priority for compatriots: (i) Reasonable particularists often forget that associative duties for compatriots compete with many sub-national and trans-domestic associative duties. (ii) They tend to forget that associative national duties compete with other, strong special (contractual, reparative) obligations regarding not only citizens and residents inside nation-states but also trans-domestic obligations across state borders. (iii) They do not properly discuss the problem of unallocated duties in addressing global poverty and insecurity. (iv) The design of supra-national and global ‘mediating’ institutions, and the crafting of policies to remedy the misallocation of duties and to coordinate the required state activities is an urgent task neglected by liberal nationalists. In the recent context, reasonable partiality’s bias towards partiality is most unwelcome and morally dubious. Reasonable impartiality’s bias towards cosmopolitanism helps to stimulate a drastic shift in obligations and stimulates productive trans-national institutional design.

Key Words

associative duties communities of culture and fate conflicting general and special duties embedded impartiality global poverty and insecurity national duties and moral constraints obligations policies supra-national institutions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bader, V.M., Macht of Waarheid. In: Kennis en Methode 12(2) (1988), pp. 138–157.Google Scholar
  2. Bader, V.M., Citizenship and Exclusion. In: Political Theory 23(2) (1995a), pp. 211– 246.Google Scholar
  3. Bader, V.M., Reply to Michael Walzer. In: Political Theory 23(2) (1995b), pp. 250–252.Google Scholar
  4. Bader, V.M., Fairly Open Borders. In: Bader, V. (ed.) Citizenship and Exclusion. Houndsmill/London: MacMillan, 1997, pp. 28–60.Google Scholar
  5. Bader, V.M., The Cultural Conditions of Transnational Citizenship. In: Political Theory 25/6 (1997a), pp. 771–813.Google Scholar
  6. Bader, V.M., Dilemmas of Ethnic Affirmative Action. Benign State-Neutrality or Relational Ethnic Neutrality. In: Citizenship Studies 2(3) (1998), pp. 435–473.Google Scholar
  7. Bader, V.M., Egalitarian Multiculturalism: Institutional Separation and Cultural Pluralism. In: Rainer Bauböck/John Rundell (eds.), Blurred Boundaries. Ashgate, Aldershot, Chapter 7 (1998a), pp. 185–222.Google Scholar
  8. Bader, V.M., For Love of Country. In: Political Theory, 27:3 (1999), pp. 379–397.Google Scholar
  9. Bader, V.M., Culture and Identity. Contesting Constructivism. In: Ethnicities 1(2) (2001), pp. 251–273.Google Scholar
  10. Bader, V.M., Ethnic and religious state-neutrality: utopia or myth? Unpublished Ms, 2001a.Google Scholar
  11. Bader, V.M., Democratic Institutional Pluralism and Cultural Diversity. In: Juteau, Danielle/Harzig, Christiane (eds.), The Social Construction of Diversity. New York, Oxford: Berghan, 2003, pp. 131–167.Google Scholar
  12. Bader, V.M. and Engelen, E., Taking Pluralism Seriously. Arguing for an Institutional Turn in Political Philosophy. in: Philosophy and Social Criticism 29/6 (2003), pp. 375–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bader, V.M. and Saharso, S., Contextualized Morality. Introduction. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (2004), pp. 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bader, V.M., Building European Institutions. Beyond Strong Ties and Weak Commitments. Forthcoming in: Shapiro, I./Benhabib, S. (eds.), 2005.Google Scholar
  15. Bader, V.M., Immigration. Forthcoming in: Constellations, 2005a, Simon Caney/Percy Lehning (eds.), International Distributive Justice. Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Barry, B. and Goodin, R.E. (eds.), Free Movement. Ethical Issues in the Transnational Migration of People and of money}. New York, London etc, 1992.Google Scholar
  17. Bauböck, R., Transnational Citizenship. Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1994.Google Scholar
  18. Bauböck, R., Political Boundaries in a Multilevel Democracy. Forthcoming in: Shapiro, I., and Benhabib, S. (eds.), 2005.Google Scholar
  19. Beitz, C.R., Justice and International Relations. In: Beitz et al. (eds.), 1985, pp. 282–311.Google Scholar
  20. Beitz, C.R., Sovereignty and Morality in International Affairs. In: Held (ed.), 1991, pp. 236–254.Google Scholar
  21. Beitz, C.R., Cohen, M., Scanlon, T. and Simmons, A. (eds.), International Ethics. Princeton, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. Caney, S., Individuals, Nations, and Obligations. In: Caney George, D. Jones, P. (eds.), National Rights, International Obligations. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996, pp. 119–138.Google Scholar
  23. Carens, J.H., Migration and Morality: A Liberal Egalitarian Perspective, in: Barry/Goodin (eds.), Free Movement, 1992, pp. 25–47.Google Scholar
  24. Carens, J.H., Culture, Citizenship, and Community. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. Eisenberg, A., Reconstructing Political Pluralism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. Elfstrø m, G., Ethics for a shrinking world. Houndsmill/London: MacMillan, 1990.Google Scholar
  27. Engelen, E., Openness and Protection. Forthcoming in: Politics and Society 31(4) (2003), 503–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fø llesdal, A., Do Welfare Obligations End at the Boundaries of the Nation State? In: Koslowski/Fø llesdal (eds.), Restructuring the Welfare State. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1997, pp. 145–163.Google Scholar
  29. Galston, W., Liberal Pluralism. Cambridge: C University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  30. Goodin, R.E., What is so Special about Our Fellow Countrymen? In: Ethics 98 (1988), pp. 663–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hacker-Cordon, C., Our Deliberative Situation. Chapter Two of PhD. Unpublished Manuscript, 2003.Google Scholar
  32. Hayward, C., Binding Problems, Boundary Problems: The Trouble with “Democratic Citizenship”. Forthcoming in: Shapiro, I., and Benhabib, S. (eds.), 2005.Google Scholar
  33. Jones, C., Global Justice. Defending Cosmopolitanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  34. Kymlicka, W., Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  35. Kymlicka, W., Contemporary Political Philosophy. 2 edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  36. MacIntyre, A., Is Patriotism a Virtue? Lindley Lecture, University of Kansas, 1984.Google Scholar
  37. Miller, D., Market, State, and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  38. Miller, D., On Nationality. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, D., Reasonable Partiality and Priority for Compatriots, 8 (2005) pp. 63–81.Google Scholar
  40. Nathanson, S., Patriotism, Morality, and Peace. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.Google Scholar
  41. Nussbaum, M., For Love of Country. Edited by J. Cohen. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  42. Offe, C., Demokratie und Wohlfahrtstaat. In: Streeck, W. (ed.), Internationale Wirtschaft, National Demokratie. Frankfurt M.: Campus, 1998, pp. 99–136.Google Scholar
  43. Perry, S., Immigration, Justice, and Culture. In: Schwartz. W. (ed.) Justice in Immigration. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995, pp. 94–135.Google Scholar
  44. Pogge, T.W., An Egalitarian Law of Peoples. In: Philosophy and Public Affairs; 1994, pp. 195–224.Google Scholar
  45. Pogge, T.W., Global Justice. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.Google Scholar
  46. Pogge, T.W., World Poverty and Human Rights. Cambridge: Polity, 2002.Google Scholar
  47. Scheffler, S., Boundaries and Allegiances. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  48. Schwartz, W.F. (ed.), Justice in Immigration. Cambridge/Mass: Cambridge University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  49. Shue, H., Basic Rights. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  50. Shue, H., Mediating Duties, in: Ethics 98 (1988), pp. 687–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, R., Law’s Races. Conference “Identities, Affiliations, and Allegiances”. Yale Univ., October 3–5. Forthcoming in: Seyla Benhabib, Ian Shapiro, and Danilo Petranovich (eds.), Identities, Affiliations, and Allegiances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 2006.Google Scholar
  52. Stoep, J.v.d., Towards a Sociological Turn in Contextualist Moral Philosophy. In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7(2) (2004), pp. 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stolcke, V., The ‘Nature’ of Nationality. In: Bader, V. (ed.) Citizenship and Exclusion. Houndsmill: MacMillan Press, 1997, pp. 61–80.Google Scholar
  54. Tamir, Y., Liberal Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  55. Unger, P., Living High & Letting Die. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  56. Viroli, M., For Love of County. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.Google Scholar
  57. Walzer, M., Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1983.Google Scholar
  58. Walzer, M., Thick and Thin. Notre Dame, London: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  59. Walzer, M., Response to Veit Bader. In: Political Theory 23(2) (1995), pp. 247–249.Google Scholar
  60. Walzer, M., Response. In: Miller, David/Walzer, Michael (eds.), Pluralism, Justice, and Equality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995a, pp. 281–297.Google Scholar
  61. Whelan, F., Citizenship and the Right to Leave. In: American Political Sscience Review 75(3) (1981), pp. 636–653.Google Scholar
  62. Williams, M., The Uneasy Alliance of Group Representation and Deliberative Democracy. In: Kymlicka/Norman (eds.), 2000, pp. 124–152.Google Scholar
  63. Williams, M., Citizenship as Identity, Citizenship as Shared Fate, and the Functions of Multicultural Education,” in Kevin McDonough and Walter Feinberg, eds., Citizenship and Education in Liberal-Democratic Societies – Teaching for Cosmopolitan Values and Collective Identities} (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 2003, pp. 208–247.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veit Bader
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of of AmsterdamAmsterdam

Personalised recommendations