Advertisement

Erkenntnis

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 285–304 | Cite as

Internalism and the Problem of Stored Beliefs

  • Matthew Frise
Original Article

Abstract

A belief is stored if it is in no way before the subject’s mind. The problem of stored beliefs is that of satisfactorily explaining how the stored beliefs which seem justified are indeed justified. In this paper I challenge the two main internalist attempts to solve this problem. Internalism about epistemic justification, at a minimum, states that one’s mental life alone determines what one is justified in believing. First I dispute the attempt from epistemic conservatism, which states that believing justifies retaining belief. Then I defend the attempt from dispositionalism, which assigns a justifying role to dispositions, from some key objections. But by drawing on cognitive psychological research I show that, for internalism, the problem of stored beliefs remains.

Keywords

Prima Facie Justify Belief Mental Life Evil Demon Propositional Justification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

For helpful comments and conversation on a draft of this paper, I thank Earl Conee, Richard Feldman, Kevin McCain, Matthew McGrath, Andrew Moon, Thomas Senor, an audience at the 2015 Alabama Philosophical Society Conference, and two anonymous referees. I revised this paper while supported by a grant from the Templeton Religion Trust. The opinions expressed in this paper are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Templeton Religion Trust.

References

  1. Audi, R. (1995). Memorial justification. Philosophical Topics, 23(1), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bjork, R., & Vanhuele, M. (1992). Retrieval inhibition and related adaptive peculiarities of human memory. NA—Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Conee, E., & Feldman, R. (2004). Evidentialism: Essays in epistemology: Essays in epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Conee, E., & Feldman, R. (2011). Replies. In T. Dougherty (Ed.), Evidentialism and its discontents. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Frise, M. (2015). Epistemology of memory. In J. Fieser & B. Dowden (Eds.), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.iep.utm.edu/epis-mem/.
  6. Frise, M. (manuscript a). Eliminating the Problem of Stored Beliefs.Google Scholar
  7. Frise, M. (manuscript b). Preservationism in the Epistemology of Memory.Google Scholar
  8. Fisher, R. P., & Edward, R. (1992). Memory-enhancing techniques for investigative interviewing: The cognitive interview (Vol. xi). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, Publisher.Google Scholar
  9. Ginet, C. (1975). Knowledge, perception, and memory (Vol. 26). Dordrecht: D. Reidel Pub. Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldman, A. I. (1999). Internalism exposed. Journal of Philosophy, 96(6), 271–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldman, A. I. (2009). Internalism, externalism, and the architecture of justification. Journal of Philosophy, 106(6), 309–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldman, A. I. (2011). Toward a synthesis of reliabilism and evidentialism? Or: Evidentialism’s troubles, reliabilism’s rescue package. In T. Dougherty (Ed.), Evidentialism and its discontents. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Harman, G. (1986). Change in view. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Huemer, M. (1999). The problem of memory knowledge. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 80(4), 346–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kelley, C. M., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Remembering mistaken for knowing: Ease of retrieval as a basis for confidence in answers to general knowledge questions. Journal of Memory and Language, 32(1993), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koutstaal, W., & Schacter, D. L. (1997). Inaccuracy and inaccessibility in memory retrieval: Contributions from cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. In P. S. Appelbaum, L. A. Uyehara, & M. R. Elin (Eds.), Trauma and memory: Clinical and legal controversies (pp. 93–137). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Madison, B. J. C. (2014). Epistemic internalism, justification, and memory. Logos and Episteme, 5(1), 33–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martin, C. B., & Deutscher, M. (1966). Remembering. Philosophical Review, 75, 161–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McCain, K. (2008). The virtues of epistemic conservatism. Synthese, 164(2), 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McCain, K. (2014). Evidentialism and epistemic justification. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. McGrath, M. (2007). Memory and epistemic conservatism. Synthese, 157(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McGrath, M. (2013). Phenomenal conservatism and cognitive penetration: The bad basis counterexamples. In C. Tucker (Ed.), Seemings and justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Michaelian, K. (2011a). The epistemology of forgetting. Erkenntnis, 74(3), 399–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Michaelian, K. (2011b). Generative memory. Philosophical Psychology, 24(3), 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Michaelian, K. (2011c). Is memory a natural kind? Memory Studies, 4(2), 170–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mitchell, K., & Johnson, M. (2000). Source monitoring: Attributing mental experiences. In E. Tulving & F. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Moon, A. (2012a). Knowing without evidence. Mind, 121(482), 309–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moon, A. (2012b). Three forms of internalism and the new evil demon problem. Episteme, 9(4), 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pappas, G. S. (1980). Lost justification. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 5(1), 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Piazza, T. (2009). Evidentialism and the problem of stored beliefs. Philosophical Studies, 145(2), 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Poston, T. (2014). Reason and explanation: A defense of explanatory coherentism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Poston, T. (2016). Acquaintance and skepticism about the past. In B. Coppenger, & M. Bergmann (Eds.), Intellectual assurance: Essays on traditional epistemic internalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Roediger, H., & McDermott, K. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(4), 803–814.Google Scholar
  34. Russell, B. (1921/1995). The analysis of mind. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Schacter, D. L. (2002). The seven sins of memory: How the mind forgets and remembers. Boston: Mariner Books.Google Scholar
  36. Senor, T. D. (1993). Internalistic foundationalism and the justification of memory belief. Synthese, 94(3), 453–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Senor, T. D. (2009). Epistemological problems of memory. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/memoryepisprob/.
  38. Tulving, E. (1982). Synergistic ecphory in recall and recognition. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 36(2), 130–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wagenaar, W. A. (1986). My memory: A study of autobiographical memory over six years. Cognitive Psychology, 18(2), 225–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Williamson, T. (2007). On being justified in one’s head. In M. Timmons, J. Greco, & A. Mele (Eds.), Rationality and the good: Critical essays on the ethics and epistemology of Robert Audi. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Baylor UniversityWacoUSA

Personalised recommendations