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Environment Systems and Decisions

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 253–265 | Cite as

Health risk assessment due to heavy metal exposure from commonly consumed fish and vegetables

  • Md. Saiful Islam
  • Md. Kawser Ahmed
  • Md. Habibullah-Al-Mamun
  • Mohammad Raknuzzaman
  • Mir Mohammad Ali
  • Dennis Wayne Eaton
Article

Abstract

Contamination of heavy metals in fish and vegetables is regarded as a major crisis globally, with a large share in many developing countries. In Bogra District of Bangladesh, concentrations of six heavy metals, i.e., chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were evaluated in the most consumed vegetables and fish species. The sampling was conducted during February–March 2012 and August–September 2013. The levels of metals varied between different fish and vegetable species. Elevated concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were observed in vegetable species (Solanum tuberosum, Allium cepa and Daucus carota), and fish species (Anabas testudineus and Heteropneustes fossilis) were higher than the FAO/WHO permissible limits, indicating these three metals might pose risk from the consumption of these vegetable and fish species. The higher concentration of heavy metals in these vegetable species might be due to the higher uptake from soil and sediment ingestion behavior in fish species. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) showed significant anthropogenic contributions of Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb in samples as the PCA axis scores were correlated with scores of anthropogenic activities. Target hazard quotients showed that the intakes of Cu, As and Pb through vegetables and fish were higher than the recommended health standards, indicated non-carcinogenic risk. Therefore, intakes of these elements via fish and vegetables for Bangladeshi people are a matter of concern.

Keywords

Heavy metals Fish Vegetables Health risk Bangladesh 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the authority of Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Bangladesh, and Yokohama National University, Japan, for providing laboratory facilities to analyze vegetable and fish samples using conventional technique. The authors also delighted to express their gratefulness and sincerest thanks to Professor Dr. Md. Shams-Ud-Din (Vice Chancellor, PSTU), for his valuable suggestions and cooperation to carry out this research. Furthermore, we are thankful for the kind help from the members of the department of Soil Science Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Bangladesh, during the field sampling.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Saiful Islam
    • 1
    • 2
  • Md. Kawser Ahmed
    • 3
  • Md. Habibullah-Al-Mamun
    • 2
    • 4
  • Mohammad Raknuzzaman
    • 2
    • 4
  • Mir Mohammad Ali
    • 5
  • Dennis Wayne Eaton
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Soil SciencePatuakhali Science and Technology UniversityDumki, PatuakhaliBangladesh
  2. 2.Faculty and Graduate School of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityHodogaya-ku, YokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Oceanography, Earth and Environmental Sciences FacultyUniversity of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  4. 4.Department of FisheriesUniversity of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  5. 5.Department of AquaculturePatuakhali Science and Technology UniversityPatuakhaliBangladesh
  6. 6.Rutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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