The Environmentalist

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 280–286 | Cite as

Fractionation of Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in roadside soils of Uyo, Niger Delta Region: Nigeria using the optimized BCR sequential extraction technique

  • I. U. Umoren
  • I. I. Udousoro


The optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied to nine roadside soil samples for the determination of Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. The extractable metals were isolated into three operationally defined fractions viz: acid extractable, reducible and oxidizable. The residue was treated with aqua regia solution. Metal analysis was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry with air–acetylene flame. Results obtained showed the concentrations of the metals as relative abundance in the mobile phases of the samples (based on the sum of the first three fractions) are in the following order: Cd(91.9) > Pb(82.8) > Ni(49.5) > Cr(39.0). The most non-mobilizable metals were Cr and Ni which are generally lithogenic, associated with the silicate matrix, and the order is as follows: Cr(61.0) > Ni(50.5) > Pb(17.2) > Cd(8.1). The recovery of all the metals expressed as the ratio of total metal concentration to fractional sum of the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure was of the order: Cr(95.6) > Pb(95.0) > Ni(94.8) > Cd(92.4).


Extraction Fractionation Mobilization Optimized BCR Speciation 


  1. Chlopecka A, Bacon JR, Wilson MJ, Kay J (1996) Forms of cadmium, lead and zinc in contaminated soils from Southwest Poland. J Environ Qual 25:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davidson CM, Duncan AL, Littlejohn D, Ure AM, Garden LM (1998) A critical evaluation of a the three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure to assess the potential mobility and toxicity of heavy metals in industrially contaminated land. Anal Chim Acta 363:45–55. doi: 10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00057-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davidson CM, Ferreira PCS, Ure AM (1999) Some sources of variability in application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure recommended by BCR to industrially contaminated soil. Fresenius J Anal Chem 363:446–451. doi: 10.1007/s002160051220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kartal S, Aydin Z, Tokalioglu S (2006) Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data. J Hazard Mater 132:80–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.11.091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kheboian C, Bauer CF (1987) Accuracy of selective extraction procedures for metal speciation in model aquatic sediments. Anal Chem 59:1417–1423. doi: 10.1021/ac00137a010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Li B, Wang Q, Huang B, Li S (2001) Evaluation of the results from a quasi-Tessier’s sequential extraction procedure for heavy metal speciation in soils and sediments by ICP-MS. Anal Sci 17:11561–11564Google Scholar
  7. Marin A, Lopez-Gonzalrez A, Barbas C (2001) Development and validation of extraction methods for the determination of zinc and arsenic speciation in soils using focused ultrasound application to heavy metal study in mud and soils. Anal Chim Acta 442:305–318. doi: 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01169-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Onianwa PC (2001) Roadside topsoil concentration of lead and other heavy metals in Ibadan, Nigeria. Soil Sediment Contam 10(6):577–591. doi: 10.1080/20015891109446 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Onianwa PC, Adoghe JO (1997) Heavy metals content of roadside gutter sediments in Ibadan, Nigeria. Environ Int 23(6):893–897. doi: 10.1016/S0160-4120(97)00098-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Petit MD, Rucandio MI (1999) Sequential extraction for determination of cadmium distribution in coal fly ash, soil and sediment samples. Anal Chim Acta 401:283–291. doi: 10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00487-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pustisek N, Milacic R, Veber M (2001) Use of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure for the study of the partitioning of Cd, Pb, and Zn in various soil samples. J Soils Sediments 1:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Quevauviller P (1998) Operationally defined extraction procedure for soil and sediment analysis I. Standardization. Trends Analyt Chem 17:289–298. doi: 10.1016/S0165-9936(97)00119-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rauret G, Lopez-Sanchez JG, Sahuquillo A, Rubio R, Davidson C, Ure A et al (1999) Improvement of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure prior to the certification of new sediments and soil reference materials. J Environ Monit 1:57–61. doi: 10.1039/a807854h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sahuquillo A, Lopez-Sanchez JF, Rubio R, Rauret G, Thomas RP, Davidson CM et al (1999) Use of certified reference materials for extractable trace metals to assess sources of uncertainty in the BCR three stage sequential extraction procedure. Anal Chim Acta 382:317–327. doi: 10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00754-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Scancar J, Milacic R, Horvat M (2000) Comparison of various digestion procedures in analysis of heavy metals in sediments. Water Air Soil Pollut 118:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shiowatana J, Tantidanaib N, Nookabkaewb S, Nacaprichaa D (2001) Heavy metals in the environment, technical report. J Environ Qual 30:1195–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stones M, Marsalek J (1996) Trace metal composition and speciation in street sediment. Sault. Ste. Marie, Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut 87(1/4):149–169. doi: 10.1007/BF00696834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sutherland RA, Tack FMG (2003) Fractionation of Cu, Pb, and Zn in certified reference soils SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 using the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure. Adv Environ Res 8:37–50. doi: 10.1016/S1093-0191(02)00144-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Svete P, Milacic R, Pihlar B (2001) Partitioning of Zn, Pb, and Cd in river sediments from a lead and zinc mining area using the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure. J Environ Monit 3:586–590. doi: 10.1039/b106311c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tack FMG, Verloo MG (1995) Chemical speciation and fractionation in soil and sediment heavy metal analysis: a review. Int J Environ Anal Chem 59:225–238. doi: 10.1080/03067319508041330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–850. doi: 10.1021/ac50043a017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tokalioglu S, Kartal S, Birol G (2003) Application of a three stage sequential extraction procedure for the determination of extractable metal contents in highway soils. Turk J Chem 27:333–346Google Scholar
  23. Turer D, Maynard JB (2003) Heavy metal contamination in highway soils. Comparison of Corpus Christi, Texas and Cincinnati, Ohio shows organic matter is key to mobility. Clean Technol Environ Policy 4:235–245. doi: 10.1007/s10098-002-0159-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Umoren IU, Onianwa PC (2005) Concentration and distribution of some heavy metals in urban soils of Ibadan, Nigeria. Pak J Sci Ind Res 48(6):397–401Google Scholar
  25. Umoren IU, Udoh AP, Udousoro II (2007) Concentration and chemical speciation for the determination of Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd from refuse dump soils using the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure. Environmentalist 27:241–252. doi: 10.1007/s10669-007-9001-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Ranset E, Verloo M, Demeyer A, Pauwels JM (1999) Analytical methods for soil and plants equipment and management of consumables. Ghent University, Belgium, p 243Google Scholar
  27. Zauyah B, Juliana B, Noorhafizah R, Fauziah CI, Rosenani AB (2004) Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in some cultivated and uncultivated ultisols and inceptisols in Penninsular Malaysia, In: 3rd Australian New Zealand soils conference, University of Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of UyoUyoNigeria

Personalised recommendations