Sustainable design of the household water treatment systems using a novel integrated fuzzy QFD and LINMAP approach: a case study of Iran


There is a high possibility that pursuit of water policies goals which could have impacts on water security. Decision makers are interested in developing the water management systems to establish sustainable demand for secured water. The aim of the paper is to analyze the sustainability indicators (SIs) related to designing of the household water treatment system (HWTS). Thirteen criteria like solid waste, liquid waste, air pollution, initial cost, operation and maintenance costs, transport cost, satisfaction, purchasing power, social acceptance, health, reliability, after sales service, and technological capacity in four categories including environmental, economic, social and technical aspects have been considered. These criteria affect HWTS. These criteria are evaluated by taking into account the customer requirements (CRs) and design requirements (DRs) of HWTS. The objective of this study is to design sustainable HWTSs. This is achieved by an analytical approach integrating quality function deployment (QFD) and a linear programming technique for multidimensional analysis of preference (LINMAP) under fuzzy environment for guiding HWTSs manufactures. Fuzzy QFD-LINMAP approach is used to investigate the roles of the study criteria and the interrelationships between them. The HWTSs development in the city of Behbahan, Iran, is considered. The findings indicate that operation and maintenance costs (with value of 0.0522) is the most important sustainability indicator in the CRs and the least important is technical capacity (with value of 0.1096). The most important sustainability indicator in DRs is purchasing power (with value of 0.0207), and the least important is liquid waste (with value of 0.1469). The results show that sustainability strategies are selected for water treatment systems constraints and the model provides compromise solutions to help decision makers evaluate suitable water policy mix.

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Fig. 7



Household water treatment system


Volt-alternative current


Volt-direct current


House of quality


Linear programming technique for multidimensional analysis of preference


Sustainability indicators


Customer requirements


Design requirements


Multi-criteria decision making


Low energy consumption


Low cost


Easy access


Variation in dimension and size


Production quality


Depreciation reduction


Production efficiency


Solid waste


Liquid waste


Air pollution


Initial cost


Operation and maintenance costs


Transport cost




Purchasing power


Social acceptance






After sales service


Technological capacity


Strategic position of the product in the market


Quality improvement


Easy installation


Cost reduction


Product waste recycle


Operation and maintenance


Product energy consumption reduction


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The authors would like to thank Behbahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Behbahan, Iran, for providing research grant.

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Correspondence to Abdolvahhab Fetanat.

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Fetanat, A., Tayebi, M. Sustainable design of the household water treatment systems using a novel integrated fuzzy QFD and LINMAP approach: a case study of Iran. Environ Dev Sustain (2021).

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  • Household water treatment system
  • House of quality (HOQ)
  • Quality function deployment (QFD)
  • Sustainability indicator